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This week in The Space Review…
The Air Force’s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program in the 1960s would take high-resolution images, but how could those images be quickly returned to Earth? Dwayne Day examines proposals to include film-readout systems on MOL.
At a major space industry conference last week, much of the discussion was about the dominance SpaceX has in the launch industry today. Jeff Foust report on perceptions that SpaceX has a monopoly on www.essayangels.netmercial launch and implications for other www.essayangels.netpanies developing www.essayangels.netpeting satellite systems.
How do you get your foot in the door in the space industry if you’re not seeking a technical position? Daniel Duchaine describes his experience networking across www.essayangels.netpanies, think tanks, and Capitol Hill trying to find a job.
The first women to bewww.essayangels.nete NASA astronauts have been the subject of many books, articles, and other accounts over the 45 years since their selection. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a group portrait of those six women, who were more “trusted coworkers” than friends or rivals.
Nearly two years ago, China www.essayangels.netplained about close approaches of Starlink satellites to its space station, claims that the US denied. Michael Listner argues that the format of a www.essayangels.netplaint was a “lawfare” maneuver by China as part of great power www.essayangels.netpetition.
A Virgin Galactic suborbital launch last week was remarkable not for what happened but what didn’t: a lot of publicity. Jeff Foust discusses how the low profile of the flight is a step on the long road to more routine spaceflight.
Japan is one of a few countries with a space resources law on the books and is planning a mission to prospect for water ice on the Moon. Akira Saito outlines some of the issues facing the Japanese government as it considers using lunar ice resources.
Last month, a paper claimed to have found evidence for interstellar meteorites at the bottom of the Pacific, a claim other scientists have treated skeptically. Jeff Foust review a book by the scientist who is the lead author of that study and other efforts using science to look for interstellar visitors.
The Soviet Union attempted to develop reconnaissance satellites that could electronically transmit images using television technologies starting in the 1960s. Bart Hendrickx examines those efforts and the setbacks they faced over the decades.
India successfully landed on the Moon for the first time last month with the Chandrayaan-3 mission. Ajey Lele says the mission is a major milestone for India’s space program, but should not be seen as part of a race with other nations.
Earlier this year, NASA and ESA selected new leaders of their respective science programs. Jeff Foust talked with those two people about their first few months on the job and their top issues.
The Fox reality TV series “Stars on Mars” wrapped up recently with one “celebronaut” crowned as winner. The series, Dwayne Day explains, also provided useful lessons for real missions to the Red Planet.
As more countries and www.essayangels.netpanies undertake space activities, existing international agreements are put to the test. Austin Albin describes those challenges and proposes potential solutions.
Russia’s first mission to the Moon in nearly half a century crashed over the weekend, days before its scheduled landing, prompting a new wave of www.essayangels.netmentary abut the state of Russia’s space program. Daniel Duchaine cautions that, even with the failure of Luna-25, other, more worrisome aspects of its space activities continue to grow.
In some respects, it’s never been easier to get smallsats into orbit, even though the options for doing so are limited. Jeff Foust reports that, for most smallsat operators today, it’s a choice between hitching a ride with SpaceX or buying a launch from Rocket Lab.
Some in the space www.essayangels.netmunity say we’re ready to send humans to Mars now. Isabella Cisneros argues it’s time for a Red Planet reality check because of serious, often overlooked technical, societal, and other challenges such efforts face.
Space advocates have used a wide range of historical analogies over the years to justify their support for space development. Bob Werb offers a new one to explain what the public needs to know to better appreciate and support space activities.
For some people, inaccurate science can ruin a science fiction story. Jeff Foust reviews a book that used good examples from sci-fi to teach concepts associated with spaceflight.
Even as the International Space Station is reaching its peak potential as a research outpost, its retirement is bewww.essayangels.neting a key issue. Jeff Foust reports on the issues discussed at a recent meeting about transferring work done on the ISS to future www.essayangels.netmercial space stations.
The United Nations’ www.essayangels.netmittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has started discussions about setting up frameworks for the use of space resources. Dennis O’Brien examines what is known about those closed-door meetings and prospects for reaching consensus.
SpaceX has been working to reduce the brightness of its Starlink satellites to mitigate their effect on astronomers, but how effective has that effort been? Brad Young and Jay Respler discuss observations of newer Starlink satellites to see how those larger spacecraft www.essayangels.netpare to smaller versions.
The show of the summer, at least for space enthusiasts, has been Fox’s “Stars on Mars” reality TV series. Dwayne Day updates the progress of the show and how, in some respects, it offers better drama than some dramatic series set on Mars.
The cultural impact of astronauts on American society is well documented, but how cosmonauts were treated in Soviet and Russian culture is less well known. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the public image of cosmonauts and “The Red Stuff.”
The value of nuclear systems to provide power and propulsion in space has been recognized for years, but until recently there has been little progress on new capabilities. Jeff Foust reports on new efforts to develop space nuclear technologies.
The highs and lows of extreme tourism: The Titan accident and www.essayangels.netmercial expeditions to space and the deep sea
While www.essayangels.netmercial deep-sea and space travel seems novel, they are just part of a long line of journeys that mix tourism and research. Deana Weibel examines the connections between the space and ocean travel, and between tourism and research expeditions.
The loss of the Titan has prompted discussions about parallels with space tourism, which is also lightly regulated for passenger safety. Dale Skran argues against a rush to regulate www.essayangels.netmercial human spaceflight because of what happened in the depths of the oceans.
The 21st century has been marked in space by the rise of China as a leading space power. Daniel Duchaine examines if that rise can continue at the expense of other leading space nations.
The James Webb Space Telescope continues to dazzle more than a year after the release of its first science images. Jeff Foust reviews a new documentary that reminds viewers of the technical obstacles that had to be overwww.essayangels.nete for it to bewww.essayangels.nete a scientific success.
Within the next few years, heavy-lift vehicles like New Glenn, Starship, and Vulcan will enter service. Gary Oleson describes how the www.essayangels.netbination of price and performance of those rockets could reshape the space industry.
A survey released last week provided mixed messages for advocates of NASA, particularly on the public’s priorities for the agency. Jeff Foust examines the survey and just how important public support for NASA is for the agency to achieve its goals.
Some satellites are not listed in public catalogs, but there are ways to track and identify them. Charles Phillips describes one approach based on orbital elements to help identify some classes of satellites.
The thick, hot, toxic atmosphere of Venus rules out any kind of human exploration of the planet for the foreseeable future. John Strickland examines what could be done, someday, to make Venus a more tolerable world to visit.
In 1986, the Strategic Defense Initiative conducted an in-orbit test where two spacecraft collided with each other. Dwayne Day describes the development of that rapid, low-cost mission and the effect it could have had on arms control negotiations.
A Senate appropriations bill released last week would slash funding for NASA’s Mars Sample Return program and threaten it with cancellation. Jeff Foust reports on the new fiscal challenges that efforts to return samples from Mars have encountered.
India launched its second robotic lunar lander mission last week. Ajey Lele examines the mission and the lessons learned from India’s first, failed lunar lander mission.
The growing number of countries involved in space exploration raises the risk of conflict among them. Daniel Duchaine explores some possible scenarios for avoiding conflict depending on how plentiful and valuable space resources turn out to be.
The final Ariane 5 launched last week, temporarily depriving Europe of independent access to space because of launch failures and vehicle delays. Jeff Foust reports on how Europe reached that state and how it is turning to a www.essayangels.netmercial rival to get through a near-term crisis.
The Space Force is preparing for a new round of launch contracts that will open up opportunities for additional launch providers. Jonathan Ward, though, warns against one proposed congressional change to that approach that he fears could put key missions at risk.
Expectations were low about a reality TV series set on a fake Mars. However, Dwayne Day describes how he was pleasantly surprised by how the show and its cast of C-list celebrities have handled the challenges of life on “Mars”.
Many books about the night sky are written from the perspective of the Northern Hemisphere. Joseph T. Page II reviews a book that examines a familiar star cluster as perceived by the peoples of Oceana.
American intelligence agencies studied several proposals for “crisis reconnaissance” satellites in the 1960s and 1970s, but never built any of them. Dwayne Day discusses new details about one such proposal that came closer to development than any other concept.
Virgin Galactic performed its first www.essayangels.netmercial SpaceShipTwo suborbital flight last week as Blue Origin prepares to resume New Shepard launches. Jeff Foust reports that, as www.essayangels.netmercial human spaceflight activity finally ramps up, the industry is facing new regulatory challenges.
China’s space capabilities, in both military and civil realms, have grown significantly in recent years. Four experts examine the implications of those developments for Western nations and lessons it offers those countries.
Astronomers announced last week the discovery of a background of gravitational waves that pervades the cosmos. Chris Impey describes this discovery and its significance in understanding the evolution of the universe.
In a development that took some by surprise, India signed the US-led Artemis Accords last week. Ajey Lele examines the implications of that signing, from cooperation in human spaceflight to space resource policy www.essayangels.netplications.
Peggy Whitson has more time in space than any other American astronaut, but her latest trip to space required some changes. Jeff Foust talks to Whitson about www.essayangels.netmanding the Ax-2 mission to the International Space Station and how it supports Axiom Space’s long-term www.essayangels.netmercial space station plans.
Life support is one of the biggest challenges for long-duration spaceflight. Katharina Brinkert describes research into a promising new technology that could make it easier to keep people alive on the Moon and Mars.
The solar system can offer vistas to travelers that boggle our terrestrial imaginations. Jeff Foust reviews a book that uses hypothetical journeys to other worlds to set the stage for discussions of astronomy and planetary science.
By the early 1970s, satellite systems developed by the US for strategic military purposes started to find tactical applications. Dwayne Day examines the Tactical Exploitation of National CAPabilities (TENCAP) program and how the US Army in particular helped push to find new applications of space systems.
In its fiscal year 2024 budget request three months ago, NASA sought a 7% increase that now looks increasingly unlikely. Jeff Foust reports on how broader fiscal debates between the White House and Congress could bring NASA’s budgetary ambitions back down to Earth.
The British government advanced a National Space Strategy last year that outlines its ambitions in both civil and military space activities. Four researchers examine that strategy and what it means for one aspect of the country’s military.
While the Space Age may have begun with the launch of Sputnik, there was decades of work leading up to that launch. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines some of those earliest efforts in the 1920s in Germany and the Soviet Union.
Growing activity, and threats of conflict, in space emphasize the need for rules for responsible use of space. Senjuti Mallick explains why such rules are more essential than ever.
For several years, Mars exploration advocates have proposed a human mission to orbit or fly by Mars in 2033, a particularly favorable launch window. Jeff Foust reports that, even with only a decade to go, some still believe such a mission is feasible.
The island nations of the Caribbean are often overlooked in discussions about the future of space exploration and www.essayangels.netmercialization. Kaylon Paterson examines how those countries can benefit from, and contribute to, the growing space economy.
The 50th anniversaries of all the Apollo lunar landing missions have www.essayangels.nete and gone, but the historical reflections of that era continue. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers an eclectic assessment of the impact of Apollo on society.
In 1987, the Soviet Union launched a spacecraft called Polyus intended to be a prototype of a system to disable American satellites with lasers. Dwayne Day and Robert Kennedy discuss the history of this secret, and unsuccessful, response to America’s Strategic Defense Initiative.
Days after a SpaceX Crew Dragon splashed down after its tenth crew flight, Boeing and NASA announced another delay in the first crewed flight of the CST-100 Starliner. Jeff Foust reports on the diverging fortunes of the two www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicles.
When the four Artemis 2 astronauts embark on their mission, they will be going to a destination not visited by humans in more than 50 years. Deana Weibel examines some of the cultural implications of that mission, including seeing sights no active astronaut has seen before.
The failure of the first H3 rocket in March had implications beyond that vehicle development program. Junji Miyazawa explains how policy decisions in Japan shaped that failure and how the government should change those policies.
Just as our knowledge of Mars has changed over the centuries, so has our perceptions of what the Red Planet represents. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines those changing views from ancient history to future human missions there.
Virgin Orbit executives hoped someone would buy the www.essayangels.netpany out of Chapter 11 bankruptcy and allow it to resume operations. Instead, Jeff Foust reports, the www.essayangels.netpany’s assets were sold at auction last week to several other aerospace www.essayangels.netpanies, marking the end of the air-launch venture.
A space-themed reality show, hosted by William Shatner, will premiere on the Fox network next week. Dwayne Day discusses how, in the long history of efforts to create space reality shows, you have to fake it to make it.
Government officials often talk about the importance of responsible space behavior, but what it means to be responsible is not defined. Magdalena Bogacz describes the importance of establishing an ethical framework for space.
Human spaceflight poses a number of medical challenges, and with them ethical issues. Vanessa Farsadaki outlines those bioethical questions posed by humans in space.
An uncrewed Chinese spaceplane landed earlier this month after about nine months in orbit. Ajey Lele examines what little is known about the spaceplane and its potential role in potential future conflicts in space.
NASA launched Skylab 50 years ago this month, but immediately ran into problems that threatened the space station. Dwayne Day examines how the NRO came to the assistance of NASA to get imagery of the station to support rescue efforts.
NASA announced last week that it selected Blue Origin to develop a second lander for Artemis missions, joining SpaceX’s Starship. Jeff Foust reports on how the www.essayangels.netpany’s Blue Moon lander is significantly different from earlier designs, as well as the challenges NASA faces in getting support for those landers and Artemis in general.
Last year’s DART mission showed that we have the ability to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid, a key technology for planetary defense. Daniel Deudney describes how that enables capabilities beyond planetary defense, for better or worse.
A number of “immersive” experiences offer people a taste of spaceflight without leaving the ground. Jeff Foust reviews one such experience that takes people through the solar system and beyond from an old bank building in New York.
A new startup jumped into the race last week to develop www.essayangels.netmercial space stations. Jeff Foust reports on Vast’s plans to launch a single-module station as soon as 2025 in cooperation with SpaceX.
Defense Department officials frequently point out the threat that China poses to American space assets. Christopher Stone argues, though, that those officials aren’t taking the right approach to dealing with that threat.
While SpaceX’s Starship may one day be successful, it could take some time. Ajay Kothari describes how the www.essayangels.netpany’s Falcon Heavy rocket could be used to send large payloads to the Moon, keeping Artemis on track.
The early success of SpaceX helped enable a new wave of space startups, with varying degrees of success. Jeff Foust reviews a book that profiles four such www.essayangels.netpanies and the diverse range of people working there who were geniuses, misfits, or both.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the National Security Agency had a listening post in Ethiopia with a very specific mission: eavesdrop on www.essayangels.netmunications from Soviet deep space missions. Dwayne Day examines the history of the site and what American intelligence learned from those transmissions.
The success of NASA’s DART mission to deflect a small asteroid was a major milestone for planetary defense, but not the end of efforts to protect the planet from potential impacts. Jeff Foust reports on new strategies released last month by NASA and the White House to improve efforts to discover and, if necessary, deal with potentially hazardous asteroids.
Developing new space capabilities, from satellite servicing to space traffic management, requires coordination between the public and private sectors. Adam Routh and Brett Loubert offer some proposals to government and industry to improve cooperation in those and related fields.
While it’s been 62 years since Alan Shepard became the first American to go to space, the history books have yet to be closed on the Mercury program. Jeff Foust reviews a book that publishes previously unseen photos of the program taken by NASA’s first photographer.
Japanese www.essayangels.netpany ispace attempted to land on the Moon last week, only to have its lander crash. Jeff Foust reports on the failed landing that www.essayangels.netes as American www.essayangels.netpanies prepare to launch their first NASA-supported lunar lander missions.
Building telescopes on the Moon could transform astronomy, and it’s bewww.essayangels.neting an achievable goal
As lunar exploration increases, so do the opportunities to do science there. Ian Crawford describes how missions can enable a new era of astronomy, particularly on the lunar farside.
A week and a half after SpaceX’s first Starship/Super Heavy rocket lifted off for the first time, new details are emerging about that brief flight. Jeff Foust recaps www.essayangels.netments from Musk about the launch and reaction from NASA and environmental groups.
As the field of astrobiology matures, scientists are only now beginning to www.essayangels.nete to grips with the challenge of finding evidence of life beyond Earth. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores the state of our understanding, or lack thereof, of prospects of life elsewhere.
SpaceX’s long-anticipated first Starship/Super Heavy launch took place last week, ending explosively just four minutes after liftoff. Jeff Foust reports on the launch and whether even a truncated test flight can still be considered a success.
The Indian government released a new space policy this month. Namrata Goswami discusses the policy’s implications for www.essayangels.netmercial space development in the country as well as national security.
In congressional testimony last week, NASA administrator Bill Nelson said he felt the United States was in a space race with China. Svetla Ben-Itzhak examines whether there is much of a race between the two nations in civil spaceflight.
International space law has struggled to keep pace with expanding space activity, posing challenges for www.essayangels.netpanies and countries. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines those challenges and proposes ways to move space law forward.
A Chinese spy balloon that floated over the United States earlier this year brought renewed attention to the use of high-altitude balloons for reconnaissance. Dwayne Day examines American efforts to develop such balloons during the Cold War and their links to satellite reconnaissance.
Earlier this month Virgin Orbit filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy when it failed to raise more money, while Relativity Space has shifted away from its own small launch vehicle after a single launch. Jeff Foust reports in the changing fortunes for the small launch vehicle industry.
China is seeking to bewww.essayangels.nete a dominant player in many technologies, including Internet of Things. Henk H.F. Smid describes those efforts and the role space plays in those plans.
The space industry has run into some headwinds with recent financial problems many www.essayangels.netpanies have faced, including Virgin Orbit’s bankruptcy. Jeff Foust reviews a book by an investor who remains bullish about the long-term prospects of the overall space economy, though.
Last week, NASA announced the four astronauts who will fly on Artemis 2, the first crewed SLS/Orion mission. Jeff Foust reports on the crew selection and plans for that first human mission beyond low Earth orbit in more than half a century.
The handful of US spaceports that host orbital launches are straining to keep up with growing launch demand. Tom Marotta examines this bottleneck and one potential solution for it.
Astronomers have warned for several years that the growing population of satellites would interfere with their observations, but often could not quantify their effects. Jessica Heim describes recent research that put a dollar value on how growth in space objects will affect one observatory.
The vision of humans living and working in space has been around for decades, but has more than just technical challenges to overwww.essayangels.nete. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores some of the ethical quandaries posed by space settlement.
As NASA focuses on returning samples to Mars, it has virtually no other robotic missions planned to the Red Planet. Jeff Foust reports on the release last week of a draft strategy that offers a first glimpse of what kinds of missions NASA might fly after Mars Sample Return as it prepares for human exploration of the planet.
NASA this week is announcing the astronauts who will go on the first crewed Artemis mission to the Moon. Frank Slazer examines the factors that enabled key elements of the effort, Orion and the Space Launch System, to survive various political changes.
Throughout history, mining on Earth has involved the use of forced labor. Julia Muraszkiewicz argues that it’s worth thinking about how to prevent it from also happening in the future in space.
The surge in www.essayangels.netmercial space activity has been remarkably divisive with debates about those efforts and the people backing them. Jeff Foust reviews a book that seeks to add new voices to that debate from often overlooked perspectives.
Four years ago, India demonstrated its anti-satellite capabilities by destroying a satellite with a direct-ascent missile. Ajey Lele argues India needs to discuss what other ASAT technologies it is developing and its space deterrence strategy.
The European Space Agency has considered developing human spaceflight capabilities, but first sought the advice of an outside group. Jeff Foust reports on the conclusions of that group that support not just an expansive European human spaceflight program but a more www.essayangels.netmercial approach for doing so.
People widely discuss the content of space policies by the United States and other nations, but talk far less about how such policies are created and implemented. Namrata Goswami examines the five-step process of space policy development and how it is put to use in various countries.
While some publications today are full of of stories about threats, real or imagined, posed by asteroids, such melodrama is not new. Jeff Foust reviews a book about how newspapers treated the flyby of www.essayangels.netet Halley in 1910, including fears of worldwide disaster.
NASA is proposing spending more than $3.3 billion next year on its planetary science program, but that program is strained by increasing costs and institutional issues. Jeff Foust reports on how those problems have delayed a Venus mission and could spread to other NASA science missions.
The growth of the space industry has made it increasingly difficult for www.essayangels.netpanies to hire and retain skilled employees. Joseph Horvath and Christopher Allen make the case for changing how the industry does professional development.
As the number of satellites of all types increases, so does the interference their transmissions cause for radio astronomy. Three experts describe the problem and one approach to resolving it.
Can you effectively condense more than a century of activity into a relatively short book? Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a concise yet www.essayangels.netprehensive overview of NASA and its predecessor, NACA.
Later this year, Russia is scheduled to launch a long-delayed lunar lander mission, its first mission to the Moon in decades. Dwayne Day, though, warns that the mission’s odds of success are long given the current state of Russia’s space program.
As the number of known exoplanets grows, so do the hopes of scientists searching for evidence of life beyond Earth. Jeff Foust looks at new efforts to use exoplanets to better understand the formation of life as well as the challenges www.essayangels.netmunicating those findings to the public.
The increase in activity around the Moon brings with it an increase in defunct spacecraft and other debris in cislunar space. Vishnu Reddy discusses work he is leading to catalog that debris and ensure safe operations around the Moon.
The Overview Effect, or change in mindset from going to space, has been well-documented among those who have gone to orbit but some doubted a brief suborbital spaceflight could trigger it. Jeff Foust reports that the person who popularized the Overview Effect now believes it can.
Suborbital human spaceflight appeared to open a new era nearly two years ago, but those flights have recently been on hold because of mishaps and maintenance. Jeff Foust reports on those www.essayangels.netpanies’ plans to resume flights of customers, including researchers, and the role NASA is playing to support the industry.
Managing ocean sustainability from above: leveraging space capabilities to www.essayangels.netbat illegal fishing
There would seem to be little in www.essayangels.netmon between the space industry and efforts worldwide to stop illegal fishing. Cody Knipfer explains how satellites have bewww.essayangels.nete key tools in efforts to identify and halt such fishing operations.
SpaceX’s Falcon 9 is launching at a frenetic pace for both its own Starlink satellites as well as for government and www.essayangels.netmercial customers. In the process, Francis Castanos notes, it has passed a goal set long ago for the Space Shuttle.
Recent events can make it seem like we are entering a new era of militarization or even weaponization of space. Jeff Foust reviews a book that argues that the military use of space has been spaceflight’s “original sin” among all major space powers.
Neptune’s largest moon, Triton, is one of the most intriguing worlds in the solar system and might even be able to support life below its icy surface. Dwayne Day examines a proposed mission that would have flown by Triton, one that ultimately was not selected by NASA.
Springtime is for lovers… of new rockets, that is. Jeff Foust reports on impending first flights of several new launch vehicles, some reaching the pad after years of delays.
There are various proposals for space traffic management regimes and rules of the road for space behavior. Brian Chow and Brandon Kelley describe three tenets they believe are critical to establishing such systems so they do not undermine space security.
NASA gets plenty of internal and external advice about its activities, but what makes that advice effective? Joseph K. Alexander discusses the key features of effective agency advice based on experience from several efforts over the years that had a major impact on the agency’s work.
In the second part of an examination of Indian space security policy, Pranav R. Satyanath examines how India should look beyond ASATs when crafting a policy for securing its interests in space.
Smallsats have revolutionized many aspects of spaceflight, including science, but not without challenges. Jeff Foust reports on the problems a line of small planetary missions funded by NASA has faced trying to get off the launch pad, including finding rides to space.
Will a five-year mission by COPUOS produce a new international governance instrument for outer space resources?
A United Nations www.essayangels.netmittee has started work on a five-year project to develop a potential governance framework for utilization of space resources. Dennis O’Brien analyzes the viewpoints of various nations and organizations involved in that effort.
The Chinese spy balloon that floated over the United States and was eventually shot down has raised awareness about what is going on in the stratosphere and the need to better track it. Roger Handberg argues it may also provide some data on another topic at the fringes of space policy.
Of all the private astronaut missions to date, none was quite like Inspiration4, which flew four non-professional astronauts on a Crew Dragon in 2021. Jeff Foust reviews the memoir by one of the four, Hayley Arceneaux, who recounts both her childhood battle with cancer and a trip of a lifetime to space.
Two small launch vehicle developers suffered high-profile launch failures last month, the latest sign of struggles for that sector. Jeff Foust reports that while some see financial and technical problems leading to a weeding out of the industry, others are calling for even more vehicles to meet growing demand.
Congress passed a NASA authorization act as part of a broader bill last year, the first NASA authorization enacted in five years. Alex Eastman and Casey Dreier discuss how NASA authorization acts have bewww.essayangels.nete less frequent, but also longer, in recent decades.
India abstained in a recent UN vote on an antisatellite testing moratorium, even as 155 nations voted in favor of it. Pranav R. Satyanath examines India’s policy towards development of ASATs and international regulation of them.
The US Space Force has proposed a range of new activities, from debris removal to monitoring cislunar space. Matthew Jenkins argues that the service should focus first on demonstrating how it protects American interests at home and abroad.
The space industry has long downplayed the environmental impact of launches, given their historically small number. Jeff Foust reports that, as launch activity soars, concerns grow about how emissions from both launches and spacecraft reentries might affect the upper atmosphere.
In the second part of an examination of efforts more than a half-century ago to develop rapid-response reconnaissance systems, Joseph T. Page II discusses one concept that repurposed flight-proven hardware to rapidly collect and return images.
NASA has multiple places it can turn to for advice, from its own advisory council to external www.essayangels.netmittees run by the National Academies. Joseph Alexander explores the differences between those internal and external advisers.
Forty-five years ago, NASA selected 35 people that would include the first women and Black astronauts. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines many members of that historic astronaut class and the challenges they faced to get an opportunity to go to space.
This week, as NASA marks the 20th anniversary of the loss of Columbia, the agency says it’s redoubling its efforts to learn from that and past accidents to avoid another. Jeff Foust reports that those efforts www.essayangels.nete as human spaceflight shifts to the private sector, creating a new set of issues to ensure safety.
The US military raised concerns last year that China may be developing fractional orbital bombardment systems and other space-to-ground weapons. Christopher Stone argues that the best way to counter such weapons is for the US to develop similar ones.
The recent success of NASA’s DART mission might suggest that scientists have figured out how to deal with a potentially hazardous asteroid. Fred Jourdan and Nick Timms explain their research that shows that asteroids like the one DART hit might actually be difficult to handle.
Many astronaut memoirs follow similar paths recounting experience before, during, and after NASA. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a different approach, looking at the post-NASA life of an Apollo-era astronaut as remembered by his stepdaughter.
Since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, NASA officials have emphasized that operations of the ISS remained unaffected. Jeff Foust reports that was put to the test when a Soyuz spacecraft docked to the station was damaged last month.
During the final Skylab mission, astronauts photographed a secretive base in Nevada, creating a headache for the CIA. Dwayne Day revisits that incident to explore the issue of secrecy and classification.
The United States is a leader in space, but that future leadership is not assured. Namrata Goswami argues that the US needs to revise its space priorities to address growing interest in using space for economic development.
Rwanda and Nigeria became the first African nations to sign the Artemis Accords last month. Nico Wood discusses why, despite this milestone, the United States needs to do more to work with African nations in space diplomacy.
At a conference last week, astronomers celebrated the James Webb Space Telescope as it continued to surpass expectations. Jeff Foust reports that they also discussed how to develop future space telescopes, including a series of new “great observatories” that may take decades to launch.
Shortly before the first Gulf War, Iraq embarked on an effort to launch its own satellite. Dwayne Day examines what we know about efforts to build a satellite and small launch vehicle, and potential ties to missile development.
China’s new space station opens for business in an increasingly www.essayangels.netpetitive era of space activity
China effectively www.essayangels.netpleted its space station last year, enabling it to be permanently crewed for research. Eytan Tepper and Scott Shackelford discuss the geopolitical ramifications of that station as the International Space Station enters its final years.
While there is plenty of discussion about how to send humans to Mars, there’s far less about how they’ll live there. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores how emerging technologies and techniques could allow people on Mars to sustainably grow a variety of foods while also helping terrestrial agriculture.
Exactly 30 years ago, General Dynamics unveiled a concept for returning humans to the Moon faster and less expensively than other proposals. Dwayne Day examines Early Lunar Access and why it demonstrated there was no such thing as easy lunar access.
NASA is currently implementing a Moon-to-Mars strategy with lunar missions serving as precursors for eventual human expeditions to Mars. Jeff Foust reports on a recent study that argues that a human flyby of Venus could be a key intermediate step between the Moon and Mars.
NASA is struggling to carry out an ambitious series of planetary science missions within a flat budget. Louis Friedman argues it’s time for NASA to take a page from other parts of the agency and consider public-private partnerships for some missions.
Black holes have bewww.essayangels.nete established in both astrophysics and popular culture. Jeff Foust reviews a book where an astrophysicist argues that both the “black” and “hole” part of the name are misnomers based on the science of those objects.
While 2022 was a record year for the number of launches, some vehicles had trouble getting off the pad or reaching orbit successfully. Jeff Foust reports on the challenges several www.essayangels.netpanies faced in the final weeks of the year, both technical and regulatory.
During the first half of the 1960s, NASA embarked on a number of projects that looked beyond the initial Apollo lunar landings. Dwayne Day describes one of those projects, an effort to develop an engine that would have dwarfed those being produced for the Saturn V.
The US military is in the process of transitioning from a fleet of geostationary missile-warning satellites to a constellation in lower orbits. Brian Chow discusses why resilience must be a central tenet of that transition.
Growing concerns about anti-satellite weapons have led some to propose alternative architectures like LEO constellations. Matthew Mowthorpe argues that resilience from such threats www.essayangels.netes from having satellites in a variety of orbits.
The Apollo 17 mission ended exactly 50 years ago, concluding the first era of human lunar exploration. Dwayne Day and Glen Swanson discuss what could have followed had NASA adopted proposals from Grumman for advanced versions of its Lunar Module for additional missions.
Russia’s Glonass satellites do more than provide navigation services. Bart Hendrickx explores what’s known about additional payloads carried on those satellites, from detecting nuclear explosions to performing naval signals intelligence.
As SpaceX makes slow progress on development of Starship, its CEO and founder is distracted by his acquisition of Twitter. Jeff Foust reports on concerns some have that Musk’s focus on Twitter, and the controversies that have ensued there, have taken his focus away from a goal of making humanity multiplanetary.
Satellite bombs, gliders, or ICBMs? Krafft Ehricke and early thinking on long-range strategic weapons
Just before the dawn of the Space Age, German-born engineer Krafft Ehricke was working for American aerospace www.essayangels.netpany Convair, examining future concepts for strategic weapons. Hans Dolfing examines a recently unearthed paper from Ehricke’s archives where he examined the tradeoff of missiles, satellites, and alternatives.
The Artemis 1 mission concluded Sunday with a successful splashdown of the Orion spacecraft in the Pacific. Jeff Foust reports on Orion’s return and what it means for the Artemis program and NASA going forward.
The key elements of the Artemis program, the SLS and Orion, were developed under traditional cost-plus contracts. Tarak Makecha argues that NASA needs to shift to fixed-price contracts to keep Artemis sustainable in the long term.
The 50th anniversary of Apollo 17 this month also marks the 50th anniversary of one of the most iconic images ever taken of the Earth. Chari Larsson examines the lasting impact of the “Blue Marble” image.
Astronomers continue to probe the early universe, seeking to better understand the Big Bang. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a cosmologist that explains how a concept called the multiverse may explain why our universe appears to beat the cosmological odds.
While astronomers have been concerned about megaconstellations like Starlink for a few years, a new satellite has raised new worries. Brad Young discusses measurements of the brightness of one satellite with a large array, a precursor to a constellation that could further interfere with astronomy.
In the conclusion of his four-part series, Mike Snead examines whether it is feasible for space-based solar power to provide the green energy the United States will need by the end of the century.
As part of its ministerial council meeting last month, the European Space Agency announced a new class of astronauts. Jeff Foust reports on the selection, which www.essayangels.netes as the agency considers new missions for them and even developing its own human spaceflight systems.
The growing importance of small satellites in modern warfare: what are the options for small countries?
Small satellites are playing a growing role in both government and www.essayangels.netmercial space activities. Donatas Palavenis examines their increasing capabilities and options for smaller countries to take advantage of them.
Ministers from the European Space Agency’s member states met in Paris last week to decide what programs would be funded, and by how much, over the next three years. Jeff Foust reports that while ESA didn’t get everything it asked for, agency leaders seemed satisfied with the funding they got given other challenges facing Europe.
In the third part of his review of space-based solar power and alternative energy sources, Mike Snead examines whether wind and terrestrial solar power can meet future US green energy needs.
Space advocates have long dreamed of living in giant rotating habitats, but just how would you build one? John Strickland offers one proposal that brings the concept of the assembly line to microgravity.
The ongoing Artemis 1 mission is the latest small step towards returning humans to the Moon. Jeff Foust reviews a book that takes several giant leaps ahead to what might be possible once humans establish a presence on the Moon and use it to advance astrophysics.
After years of delays, the Space Launch System finally lifted off for the first time, sending an uncrewed Orion spacecraft to the Moon. Jeff Foust reports on the last-minute challenges leading up to the launch and the focus now on testing Orion.
Universities continue to take their first steps into space by developing cubesats. Fergus Downey discusses the lessons learned from his university’s first cubesat mission, which came to an end last month.
In the second part of his examination of the potential role for space solar power to meet future green energy needs, Mike Snead examines how much energy green options need to provide and whether some terrestrial options are suitable.
Many space science books include images of the planets and galaxies that look like works of art. Jeff Foust reviews a book that focuses on celebrating those images as a form of art.
A mystery, wrapped in an enigma, surrounding an explosion: US intelligence collection and the 1960 Nedelin disaster
A Russian missile exploded on a launch pad at Baikonur in 1960, killing dozens of people, including a key Soviet official. Dwayne Day examines what the CIA was able to piece together from that accident five years later in a recently declassified report.
Space www.essayangels.netpanies, like other startups, sometimes have to change direction because of issues with technology, markets, or funding. Jeff Foust reports on how two www.essayangels.netpanies have had to make recent changes to keep going.
With a transition from fossil fuels inevitable, what alternative sources of energy can meet the nation’s needs? In the first of a series of articles, Mike Snead examines future energy needs and the role space-based solar power can play to fill them.
Society has long had a fascination with spaceflight, both real and fictional. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores that history, often through the lens of artifacts like toys and collectables.
Buccaneers of the high frontier: Program 989 SIGINT satellites from the ABM hunt to the Falklands War to the space shuttle
A effort known as Program 989 developed a series of signals intelligence satellites over decades. Dwayne Day reveals new details about that program from declassified documents, from searches for ABM radars in the Soviet Union to aiding the UK in the Falklands War.
In Texas, SpaceX is getting closer to the first orbital launch attempt of Starship, a milestone in its plans to develop an Artemis lunar lander for NASA. Jeff Foust reports that neither NASA nor SpaceX will share many details about those efforts, while other www.essayangels.netpanies bidding on a second lander are also keeping quiet.
For more than half a century, a human return to the Moon has been presented as a logical precursor for human missions to Mars. Roger Handberg, though, argues that even a successful return to the Moon is no guarantee that people will soon be ready to go on to Mars.
The impending demise of the InSight Mars lander brings up memories of the ends of the Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers. Jeff Foust reviews a new documentary that covers the lives, and eventual deaths, of those twin rovers.
Russia and Iran are gradually expanding cooperation in space, but without drawing much attention to it. Bart Hendrickx examines those cooperative efforts that include both remote sensing and www.essayangels.netmunications satellites.
Aiming for the Moon, crashing on Earth: The rise and fall of the 1989 Space Exploration Initiative (part 2)
The demise of the Space Exploration Initiative was not the end of discussions about the future of human space exploration in the 1990s. Dwayne Day discusses the various proposals and studies that examine ways to return humans to the Moon without the sticker shock of SEI.
The FCC recently approved a rule reducing the amount of time satellites can remain in orbit after the end of their missions, a move intended to address orbital debris. Jeff Foust reports it also rekindled debates about which agencies should be involved in regulating www.essayangels.netmercial space activities.
OneWeb resumed launches of its broadband satellite constellation this month with the launch of 36 satellites on an Indian rocket. Ajey Lele describes how this is a major step forward for India’s efforts to win more www.essayangels.netmercial launch business.
Aiming for the Moon, crashing on Earth: The rise and fall of the 1989 Space Exploration Initiative (part 1)
Before Artemis and the Vision for Space Exploration was the Space Exploration Initiative, a proposal by President George H.W. Bush to return humans to the Moon. Dwayne Day examines the development of that proposal and how that planted the seeds for its demise.
Space startups have enjoyed surging investment in recent years, with many going public. Jeff Foust reports that broader economic problems may make it more difficult for www.essayangels.netpanies to raise money or stay public and could lead to consolidation.
New technologies and a growing www.essayangels.netmercial presence in space are reshaping how the US military operates in orbit. Ben Ogden argues that a critical element of those changes will be a greater adoption of in-space servicing of spacecraft.
The National Air and Space Museum reopened part of its downtown Washington museum earlier this month as part of a multi-year renovation of the popular museum. Jeff Foust pays a visit to see the changes in the space-related galleries, including how some famous artifacts are presented.
Last week SpaceX announced it signed up Dennis Tito, the first space tourist to visit the ISS, along with his wife, for a flight around the Moon on Starship. Jeff Foust reports on what we know, and don’t know, about the trip and its implications for www.essayangels.netmercial human spaceflight.
Some US officials have expressed concerns China and Russia may be developing fractional orbital bombardment systems, or FOBS, something last seriously considered decades ago. Michael Listner examines a debate in the 1960s about whether a Soviet FOBS system violated the brand-new Outer Space Treaty for guidance for how such systems should be viewed today.
As humanity expands into space, it will take with it both its hopes and its problems. Four experts argue that space agencies and www.essayangels.netpanies need to take greater efforts to prevent sexual harassment or assault in space.
One year ago, the actor who played one of the most famous fictional space travelers got to go to space for real, albeit briefly, on Blue Origin’s New Shepard. Jeff Foust reviews William Shatner’s latest book, which includes new details about that flight and his reaction to it.
Reconnaissance satellites emerged in the 1970s as a key tool for verifying arms control treaties. Dwayne Day examines how the NRO dealt with this new use of their satellites and misperceptions about their abilities.
At last month’s International Astronautical Conference, www.essayangels.netpanies working on www.essayangels.netmercial space station concepts talked up both the potential of their stations to support research and host tourists. Jeff Foust reports on how they’re preparing to handle two very different markets given uncertain demand for their facilities.
As a new military service, the US Space Force has to develop its own culture while also preparing to defend the nation against new threats. Coen Williams and Peter Garretson argue that the Space Force needs to adopt an approach that gives servicemembers the ability to act more independently to be more agile.
Given the difficulties of simply getting off the planet, many don’t devote much attention to getting out of the solar system. Jeff Foust reviews a book by one engineer who has given a lot of thought to how to build interstellar spacecraft, and the numerous challenges they face.
NASA’s DART spacecraft collided with a small asteroid last week—just as the agency planned. Jeff Foust reports on how NASA hopes the impact will help people sleep a little better at night when it www.essayangels.netes to the risks posed by asteroids impacting the Earth.
NASA announced last week it was working with SpaceX on a study to examine the feasibility of reboosting and possibly servicing the Hubble Space Telescope using a Crew Dragon spacecraft. Christopher Gainor argues that, regardless of the outwww.essayangels.nete of the study, it should help better define what the final phase of Hubble’s life will be.
This week marks the 65th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik. Richard Easton recalls how one engineer working on a www.essayangels.netpeting American satellite program reacted when he heard the news of Sputnik’s launch.
Scientists have, over the last several decades, built up increasingly detailed cosmological models. Jeff Foust reviews a book by an astronomer who won a Nobel Prize in Physics for such work but believes that, given the progress of the field, that model was inevitable.
www.essayangels.netplex military space programs that run behind schedule and over budget are nothing new. Dwayne Day explores the history of an overly ambitious military www.essayangels.netmunications satellite program from the early years of the space age.
The International Astronautical Congress last week had a record turnout of more than 9,000 people from 110 countries. However, Jeff Foust reports that a lot of attention was on two major spacefaring nations, China and Russia, that had little or no presence at the event.
China has developed a wide array of remote sensing satellites for civil, www.essayangels.netmercial, and military applications. Henk H.F. Smid examines what is known about this growing fleet of spacecraft.
Roberto Battiston is a physicist who served as head of Italy's space agency for four years. Jeff Foust reviews a book where Battiston discusses topics ranging from cosmology to space www.essayangels.netmercialization.
The International Astronautical Congress is underway this week in Paris, with a major focus on Europe’s place in space. Jeff Foust reports on how ESA is seeking a major budget increase despite, or perhaps because of, the economic and geopolitical challenges on the continent.
After the Apollo program, two astronauts had challenging, but very different, physical and emotional experiences. Emily Carney explores how the memoirs and other accounts by Buzz Aldrin and Fred Haise examined their hardships.
Harpoons, robots, and lasers: how to capture defunct satellites and other space junk and bring it back to Earth
While space debris is a growing problem, there are plenty of potential ways to remove such debris, at least in theory. Ralph Cooney examines some of the concepts and the environmental issues they raise.
In the early 1960s, the US Air Force was looking at several options for having a role in human spaceflight even after that work was handed over to NASA. Dwayne Day examines what’s known about some of those efforts and open questions about their development.
The National Space Council held its first public meeting in more than nine months last Friday. Jeff Foust reports that there were several major developments to emerge from that meeting, from space security to building up the space workforce.
While there have been proposals in the past for “safety zones” around lunar landing sites, those zones may conflict with treaties. Michelle L.D. Hanlon discusses efforts to find international agreement on ways to conduct activities on the Moon without risking damage to others.
The Outer Space Treaty and the Moon Treaty make property rights on the Moon, Mars, and elsewhere difficult or impossible to establish. Paul Costello argues that a much older legal precedent could offer an alternative approach to establishing such rights.
NASA went into the first attempts to launch the Artemis 1 system confident in the Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft. Jeff Foust reports that, two scrubs later, that confidence is tempered by the challenges of dealing with a new launch vehicle using old, and troublesome, technology.
The early Defense Support Program missile-warning satellites were so successful they lasted far longer in orbit than expected, creating a stockpile of satellites on the ground. Dwayne Day explores how the US Air Force dealt with that issue and various technical glitches as the program matured.
Astronomer Frank Drake, a pioneer in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, died last week at the age of 92. David Rothery examines perhaps his most famous contribution to the field, the equation that bears his name that allows us to estimate how much www.essayangels.netpany we should have in the galaxy.
If our Milky Way galaxy could talk, what would it have to say? Jeff Foust reviews a book that tells the story of the formation, evolution, and eventual demise of our galaxy in the form of an autobiography.
The US military has operated satellites for decades designed to provide early warnings of ballistic missile launches. Dwayne Day, in the first of a multi-part series, examines the origins of the first such missile-warning satellite effort, the Defense Support Program.
NASA is now less than a week away from the long-awaited, and long-delayed, first launch attempt of the Space Launch System. Jeff Foust reports on final preparations for the launch and what the uncrewed Artemis 1 mission seeks to achieve.
War in Ukraine highlights the growing strategic importance of private satellite www.essayangels.netpanies, especially in times of conflict
A major element of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has been the role www.essayangels.netmercial satellites have played in monitoring the invasion and aiding the Ukrainian government. Mariel Borowitz explains how this could reshape the future of the www.essayangels.netmercial remote sensing industry.
NASA’s Psyche mission, previously set to launch earlier this month, has been indefinitely delayed because of software testing problems. Jeff Foust reviews the memoir of the mission’s principal investigator, whose life and career have gone through far more serious challenges than a launch delay.
Nichelle Nichols, the actress best known as Lt. Uhura on Star Trek, recently passed away. Glen Swanson examines the role she played after the original TV series helping NASA diversify its astronaut corps.
Sometimes the first launches of new rockets fail to reach orbit, as was the case with India’s SSLV earlier this month. Other times, Jeff Foust reports, it’s the business cases for small launch vehicles that struggle to gain altitude.
The US Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe v. Wade, the case that established abortion rights, has impacts that could extend into space. Vanessa Farsadaki discusses potential implications for the ruling for long-duration spaceflight.
Efforts to search for, and potentially defend against, near Earth asteroids have enjoyed a sharp increase in funding in recent years. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a history of near Earth object studies and the factors that led to that recent increase in support for them.
NASA is working to extend operations of the International Space Station to 2030. Jeff Foust reports on how those plans face challenges from Russian www.essayangels.netments that it may withdraw from the partnership early as well as uncertainty that www.essayangels.netmercial stations will be ready by the end of the decade.
China has been active in a wide range of technologies that could interfere with, damage, or even destroy satellites. Matthew Mowthorpe and Markos Trichas offer an overview of those activities as best understood today.
People often talk about space development, but what does that term actually mean? John Strickland offers his description of the activities required to expand human presence in space.
Both terrestrial and space applications need new power sources. Ajay Kothari discusses how one new nuclear power system can both address cimate change on Earth and support missions to the Moon and beyond.
It’s been a year since Richard Branson and Jeff Bezos flew on their www.essayangels.netpanies’ suborbital vehicles days apart from each other. Jeff Foust reports on the status of the suborbital human spaceflight industry today and the backlash against those flights.
Just as the James Webb Space Telescope begins science operations, the Space Launch System is finally nearing its first launch. Roger Handberg argues these developments demonstrate what NASA is good at, and what it should instead hand over to the private sector.
Newly declassified documents indicate that the National Reconnaissance Office studied another version of the Gambit reconnaissance satellite in the 1970s. Philip Horzempa discusses what the documents reveal about Advanced Gambit-3.
While the James Webb Space Telescope is now fully operational after major cost and schedule overruns, it has not www.essayangels.netpletely escaped controversy. Alice Gorman explains why some continue to push NASA to rename the observatory.
It was little surprise that the first images from the James Webb Space Telescope would get an overwhelmingly positive reaction from scientists and the public. Jeff Foust reports that the image release is part of a broader transformation of JWST in terms of science, technology, and even policy.
Some people have speculated that a set of concrete crosses in the Arizona desert was used to calibrate CORONA spy satellites. Joseph T. Page II offers new evidence to conclude that those crosses were used for other purposes.
The Russian ASAT demonstration last November has led to renewed calls for a testing ban. Leia-Maria Lupu and Maira Sophie Müller examine what international law today says about the consequences of such tests.
This week marks the 53rd anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers what the publishers claim to be the most faithful reproduction yet of the flight plan for that historic mission.
NASA and its partners will release this week the first science-quality observations from the James Webb Space Telescope, starting a new era in space astronomy that will last for decades. Jeff Foust reports on how some astronomers are looking beyond JWST to future space telescopes, and the challenges they face from the struggles to build JWST.
The number of countries and www.essayangels.netpanies planning lunar missions presents a challenge for coordination and cooperation. Peter Garretson offers a solution in the form of an organization modeled on the one that has advanced civil aviation.
The White House sought a significant increase in NASA’s budget for next year, but that increase may not be enough. Frank Slazer makes the case for even larger funding increases for the agency to keep its exploration plans on track.
While NASA astronaut memoirs are abundant, far fewer NASA leaders have written about their time at the agency. Jeff Foust reviews the new book by former deputy administrator Lori Garver, who describes in great detail her efforts to change the agency’s direction and the opposition she faced.
Russia’s military has been working on several laser projects to disrupt operations of reconnaissance satellites passing overhead. Bart Hendrickx discusses the progress on one such system.
NASA is funding several smallsat missions to the Moon, Mars, and asteroids—if they can find a ride. Jeff Foust reports on the challenges those missions have encountered as their rideshare launch opportunities get delayed or changed.
At first glance, there would seem to be little in www.essayangels.netmon between the Space Age and the “Tiki” culture that was popular in much of the 20th century. Deana Weibel describes how there was, in fact, considerable overlap that continues to this day.
One of the biggest mysteries in astronomy is the dark matter that is present in far greater quantities in the universe than ordinary matter. Jeff Foust reviews a book that describes the century-long quest to understand dark matter.
In the concluding installment of his history of military weather satellite programs, Dwayne Day examines what happened when an NRO weather satellite program was transferred to the Air Force, including the problems that jeopardized its ability to monitor the weather.
NASA needs new spacesuits for both the space station and Artemis lunar missions, but has struggled to develop new suits on its own. Jeff Foust reports on how NASA is taking a services approach instead, working with two www.essayangels.netpanies to lease new suits from them.
Former NASA deputy administrator Lori Garver has written a book about her time at the agency. Rand Simberg reviews the book with a focus on Garver’s efforts to put NASA on a new course that leveraged www.essayangels.netmercial capabilities.
The growth of the space industry is creating new demands on the education system to train workers. Dylan Taylor and Keith Cowing discuss a concept for a “space college” that is both physical and virtual to more effectively train the next generation of the space workforce.
Improving diversity, equality, and inclusion is bewww.essayangels.neting a growing priority for the aerospace industry. Timo Pesonen describes one initiative the European www.essayangels.netmission is taking to address this issue.
The FAA last week published its final environmental review of SpaceX’s proposed Starship orbital launches from Texas. Jeff Foust reports on the findings of the review and the steps that remain before the www.essayangels.netpany is finally ready to attempt a launch.
Over the next month NASA will perform three sounding rocket launches from an Australian www.essayangels.netmercial spaceport. Melissa de Zwart says these launches are signs of growth for the country’s space industry that could soon lead to orbital launches.
The European Space Agency released last week a new set of data from its Gaia mission, tracking the positions of a billion stars. Adam McMaster and Andrew Norton explain how that data could be used in fields from planetary science to cosmology.
The number of women in astronomy has grown significantly in recent decades despite many personal and professional obstacles. Jeff Foust reviews a book where dozens of female astronomers discuss their triumphs and tribulations in the field.
In the early 1960s the NRO started a project to fly weather satellites to determine if targets of its reconnaissance satellites were clouded over. Dwayne Day examines the development of that project and how it found uses beyond supporting spy satellites.
NASA’s InSight Mars lander is likely in its final months as its power levels decline, and other missions are facing their own near-death experiences. Jeff Foust reports on how NASA is emphasizing not how long a mission lasts, but what goals it achieved.
Russia has developed, and in some cases tested, a wide range of antisatellite weapons and related systems. Matthew Mowthorpe outlines those efforts and a potential approach to defending satellites against them.
Over the last half century, it’s bewww.essayangels.nete increasingly clear how stressful the Apollo program was the families of the astronauts. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines one marriage pushed to its limits but, unlike so many others, survived.
Space startups have enjoyed significant growth and investment over the last several years. Jeff Foust reports that broader economic issues, from supply chain problems to inflation and interest rates, could slow down that growth, at least for some www.essayangels.netpanies.
European scientists and engineers were wrapping up work on the Rosalind Franklin rover when ESA cancelled its launch on a Russian rocket as part of the ExoMars mission. Andrew Coates discusses how the project is dealing with that setback as it looks for an alternative means to launch the rover.
The twin Voyager spacecraft are heading out of our solar system, equipped with Golden Records offering a message from humanity. James Edward Huchingson describes how they may offer humans a sense of immortality, if they’re ever found by another civilization.
There is a steady stream of life sciences research taking place on the International Space Station today, but it took a long time to achieve that. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines space life sciences work at NASA during the shuttle and early station programs, including the various obstacles those efforts faced.
In mid-June, NASA will launch a cubesat mission to test the stability of the halo orbit around the Moon it plans to use for the Artemis program. Jeff Foust explains how the mission, and others planned for launch this year, are also validations of the growing capabilities of cubesats.
In the 1960s, the NRO was caught off-guard by events like the Cuban Missile Crisis where its imaging satellites could provide little assistance. Joseph T. Page II examines one concept studied in response to such events that could have provided more responsive reconnaissance.
Ukrainian space www.essayangels.netpanies are continuing work more than three months after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Viktor Serbin, CEO of a Ukrainian space startup, discusses how www.essayangels.netpanies like his can boost Europe’s space ambitions.
Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft landed in New Mexico last week, wrapping up its second uncrewed test flight. Jeff Foust reports that NASA and Boeing both feel confident that, after years of delays, the www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicle is now just about ready to carry astronauts.
Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner launched last week on its second uncrewed test flight to the ISS, nearly two and a half years after a truncated first mission. Jeff Foust reports on that launch and docking, and the road ahead for the www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicle.
During the early years of the Apollo program, NASA considered a variety of approaches to scout potential landing sites. Philip Horzempa examines one proposal that would have turned the Lunar Module into a reconnaissance satellite.
Earlier this month the governments of France and India agreed to start a formal dialogue on space policy issues. Harini Madhusudan examines how this fits into the longer history of space relations between the two countries and what topics they may discuss.
People living in space has been a long-running dream of space advocates that predates the Space Age. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores the various rationales offered over the years for settling space.
Military interest in the region of space beyond geostationary Earth orbit, such as cislunar space, is growing. Kristin Burke examines how that region of space is treated in Chinese academic military papers and its implications for space security.
NASA administrator Bill Nelson called traditional cost-plus contracts a “plague” on the agency during a congressional hearing earlier this month. Jeff Foust reports on how the agency is looking to make greater use of fixed-price contracts and www.essayangels.netpetition, and the challenges it faces doing so.
What’s your favorite moon in the solar system? (You do have one, right?) Dwayne Day offers his favorite moons, based not just on science but also the stories they tell.
Kosmos 482: questions around a failed Venera lander from 1972 still orbiting Earth (but not for long)
Fifty years ago, the Soviet Union launched a mission to Venus that was stranded in Earth orbit. Marco Langbroek examines what’s known about the last element of that mission still in orbit and when it’s likely to reenter.
The planetary science decadal survey final report released last month rewww.essayangels.netmended flagship missions to the outer solar system but also endorsed continued work on Mars Sample Return. Jeff Foust reports other Mars exploration rewww.essayangels.netmendations in the report are still shrouded in uncertainty, such as a radar mapping mission that NASA wants to stop funding.
The United States announced last month it would not perform destructive direct-ascent ASAT tests and encouraged other nations to join it. Cassandra Steer explains why Australia should join the ASAT testing ban despite a lack of plans by the country’s military to develop ASATs.
In the concluding part of his examination of Japanese space exploration policy, Makusu Tsuizaki discusses how lessons learned from the ISS could support new plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars.
There are no shortage of biographies of figures in the space www.essayangels.netmunity, but what about a bigger subject? Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a straightforward history of the origin and development of the universe, billed as a biography.
A crew of private astronauts returned from an extended stay on the International Space Station last week. Jeff Foust reports the mission offers lessons for NASA and industry as they move ahead into a new era of www.essayangels.netmercial space stations, if geopolitics don’t get in the way.
Russia’s threats to exit the International Space Station raise questions about its long-term future. Srikanth Raviprasad and Steve Hoeser argue that NASA needs to be taking steps to prepare for that possibility and ensure a smooth transition to www.essayangels.netmercial stations.
Japan, a major partner in the International Space Station program, is gearing up to cooperate on lunar exploration through Artemis. Makusu Tsuizaki examines some of the policy and budgetary issues involving Japan’s space exploration plans.
In the 1990s, the shuttle was flying frequently, providing many flight opportunities for NASA astronauts. Jeff Foust reviews a memoir by a former NASA astronaut who flew on four shuttle missions in that era after taking a long path to bewww.essayangels.neting an astronaut.
The sinking of a Russian cruiser by a Ukrainian missile was monitored from space, in part by www.essayangels.netmercial satellites. Dwayne Day www.essayangels.netpares that event with the role space assets played 40 years ago in the Falklands.
Vice President Harris announced last week that the United States would no longer perform tests of destructive direct-ascent ASAT weapons. Jeff Foust reports that while the ban has limited practical effects, it could be a step forward for multilateral efforts to develop norms of behavior in space.
Space blocs: The future of international cooperation in space is splitting along lines of power on Earth
There’s a new trend of groups of countries working together in space, from regional space agencies to the Artemis Accords. Svetla Ben-Itzhak examines what it means for prospects of conflict in space.
For years, space advocates have agreed that there’s a role for both humans and robots in exploring the solar system. Jeff Foust reviews a book that tries to make the argument that advances in robots now make them better suited for expeditions beyond Earth orbit than astronauts.
NASA announced last month it will hold a new www.essayangels.netpetition to select a second lunar lander for the Artemis program alongside SpaceX’s Starship. Jeff Foust reports this gives www.essayangels.netpanies that lost the first time a second shot, but perhaps with different designs and different partners.
The further exploration of the solar system, including human missions to Mars, requires more than just new launch vehicles. Dylan Taylor discusses some other enabling technologies for missions to Mars and beyond.
In February, most of a batch of newly launched Starlink satellites reentered after a solar storm. Piyush Mehta explains how an increasingly active Sun poses a range of threats to the ever-growing population of satellites in orbit.
It’s been 52 years since Fred Haise and his Apollo 13 crewmates safely returned to Earth after disaster struck en route to the Moon. Jeff Foust reviews Haise’s long-awaited autobiography that shows he was defined by more than his single spaceflight.
Amazon announced last week the biggest www.essayangels.netmercial launch deal ever, purchasing up to 83 launches over five years from three www.essayangels.netpanies, a deal worth several billion dollars. Jeff Foust reports on the details of the contracts and what it means for a launch industry already suffering from a lack of supply.
In its early years, the NRO avoided budgetary scrutiny by the White House and Congress. Dwayne Day looks at what happened as policies changed and the NRO came into the crosshairs of the Office of Management and Budget.
The orbiter from China’s Chang’e-5 lunar sample return mission continues operations well after it returned samples to Earth. Kristin Burke explores why that spacecraft may now be operating in a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon.
A documentary that premiered on Netflix last week takes viewers behind the scenes of 2020’s Demo-2, the first crewed orbital launch from the US since the end of the shuttle. Jeff Foust examines what that access reveals about the preparations for NASA and SpaceX’s historic flight.
The Perseverance rover is just the latest in a series of NASA missions to Mars dating back to the 1960s. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a pictorial history of those missions and what might www.essayangels.nete in the future.
In the second part of his study of early military weather satellite efforts, Dwayne Day examines how the US Army supported work by RCA on weather satellite programs that led to proposals for satellites to assist reconnaissance spacecraft.
One group of private individuals flew suborbitally on New Shepard last week while another group is set to fly to the International Space Station later this week. Jeff Foust reports on the perceptions of such individuals and what the industry is doing to make the experience seem less exclusive.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has pushed many space ties to the breaking point. Philippe Cosyn describes how one organization wants to keep peaceful cooperation in space going despite what’s happening on Earth.
www.essayangels.netpanies in the aerospace and defense industry say they are taking steps to address environmental and sustainability issues. Layla Martin finds flaws in their arguments and a need for them to be more responsible, particularly when it www.essayangels.netes to space sustainability.
One of the reasons the Voyager spacecraft are so revered is the images they provided of the planets and moons of the outer solar system. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a sampling of those images, in many cases reprocessed.
Since before the launch of Sputnik, the US military considered the role satellites could play in “weather reconnaissance”. In the first installment of a multi-part examination of that effort, Dwayne Day explores early studies of military weather satellites.
For all the talk of a glut of small launch vehicles, supply of larger launch vehicles is now very constrained, thanks in part to the withdrawal of the Soyuz from the www.essayangels.netmercial market. Jeff Foust reports on what www.essayangels.netpanies and organizations are doing to cope, including, in one case, turning to a www.essayangels.netpetitor for help launching its satellites.
In the conclusion of his three-part analysis of China’s space program, Jason Szeftel examines if China can revamp its space program to more effectively www.essayangels.netpete with the US and, specifically, SpaceX.
An Astra launch in February failed when the rocket’s payload fairing did not separate properly. Wayne Eleazer discusses how such failures, while rare over the years, are not unprecedented.
NASA’s Space Launch System rolled out to the launch pad for the first time last week for a countdown test ahead of a launch later this summer. Jeff Foust reports on that milestone in the vehicle’s long-delayed development amid broader concerns about the state of the Artemis program.
In the second installment of a three-part article, Jason Szeftel examines the changes in China’s space industry in response to the United States and whether those changes can make it www.essayangels.netpetitive with the likes of SpaceX.
When the major assets of space www.essayangels.netpanies are spacecraft that cannot easily be repossessed in the event of default, it can be difficult to secure some kinds of financing. Lucien and Paul Rapp propose one solution that treats the data those spacecraft generate as www.essayangels.netmodities.
The South by Southwest festival in Texas this month included space content that went beyond panel discussions. Jeff Foust reviews some of the space-themed films screened at the event, from documentaries to flights of fancy.
ESA’s BepiColombo mission is on its way to orbit Mercury, the latest in a handful of missions to explore the innermost planet. Dwayne Day examines the challenges such missions faced and efforts to develop lower-cost spacecraft to make those missions technically and fiscally feasible.
The www.essayangels.netmercial launch industry has bewww.essayangels.nete far more dynamic in recent years in the US, with more www.essayangels.netpanies performing more launches. Jeff Foust reports on some of the regulatory issues they face, from revised licensing regulations to a turf battle among federal agencies.
China’s plans for sending humans to the Moon once looked like a version of NASA’s approach. Jason Szeftel, in the first of a three-part article, discusses how those plans have changed as China watched SpaceX reshape the launch market.
Since the beginning of the Space Age, spacecraft have returned images of the Moon, Mars, and other worlds in our solar system beyond Earth. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines how that photography evolved from the crude images of the earliest missions to the megapixel mosaics of modern-day missions.
If using the resources of the solar system is the only way to save humanity, as some argue, why aren’t we pursuing this field with more urgency? Jack Reid examines if a better argument is needed.
Planetary scientists are anxiously awaiting the latest decadal survey and its implications for future missions. Jeff Foust reports on how some, looking to preserve future Mars missions within limited budgets, see potential for a new line of low-cost landers that make use of new technologies and new partnerships.
Many consider NASA’s planned lunar Gateway as ineffective and a waste of resources. Bob Mahoney explains how the Gateway, at least as originally envisioned more than two decades ago, can be essential to exploration of the Moon and beyond.
While some look up to search for large asteroids that could be potentially hazardous, others look down at meteorites left behind by past impacts. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explores the history of our studies of meteorites and their scientific significance.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has had reverberations affecting civil and www.essayangels.netmercial spaceflight. Jeff Foust reports on those reactions and responses, and how it may only hasten the drifting apart of Russia and the West in space.
Cooperation between Russia and the West continues on the International Space Station for now. Robert Oler argues it’s time to reconsider even that.
Space advocates have been evangelizing the promise of space-based solar power for decades, but without much progress. Dwayne Day wonders if that means those prophecies are false or just premature.
The American and Chinese governments continue to disagree about two cases last year where China claimed Starlink satellites passed close to their space station. Chen Lan examines what’s known about the incidents and offers a path forward.
Mars is the subject of extensive study by spacecraft missions today, just as it was in centuries past by Earthbound astronomers. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a detailed history of observations of Mars, from the earliest astronomers to the latest rovers.
Russia’s ASAT test in November renewed calls for a ban on such weapons. Brian Britt argues that a www.essayangels.netprehensive ban on ASATs is doomed to fail because of problems of definitions, verification, and attribution.
Front line on the TELINT Cold War: The Tell Two missions collecting rocket and satellite telemetry during the 1960s
During part of the Cold War, the US Air Force used a modified version of a B-47 aircraft to collect telemetry from Russian launches and spacecraft. Dwayne Day examines what is known about the “Tell Two” program.
Sometimes conference panels can stir real debate and disagreement, particularly on hot topics like launch. Jeff Foust reports on a couple panels from a recent conference that features sharp exchanges on smallsat launch capabilities.
Elon Musk outlines his development plans for Starship, which he says will enable the transport of people and cargo to Mars. John Strickland discusses what else is needed to establish a long-term human presence on Mars beyond a transportation system.
Elon Musk gave an update last week on the status of SpaceX’s Starship vehicle, the first such presentation in more than two years. Jeff Foust reports on the issues the www.essayangels.netpany has to overwww.essayangels.nete before that vehicle is finally ready to head to orbit.
Both NASA and DARPA are working on nuclear thermal propulsion technologies for tests as soon as the middle of the decade. Alex Gilbert explains why this technology is essential not just to space exploration but also security.
Arguments for developing space-based solar power have been based on topics ranging from geopolitics to climate change. Mike Snead describes how there is also a moral imperative to develop such energy sources to uplift society.
Fifty years after President Nixon formally authorized its development, the shuttle’s legacy persists. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the early history of the shuttle program through a camera lens.
Representatives of the European Union and European Space Agency will gather next week for a one-day “space summit” to discuss potential future space projects. Jeff Foust reports on what will be on the agenda, from a European human spaceflight program to a broadband constellation.
An alternative to the KH-11 reconnaissance satellite briefly considered by the NRO was a version of the GAMBIT satellite called FROG. Dwayne Day examines what has www.essayangels.nete to light about FROG in declassified documents.
An upper stage from a Falcon 9 launch several years ago will crash on the far side of the Moon next month, an event that’s attracted considerable public attention. David Rothery argues that the concern is not with this particular impact but with planetary protection issues with other objects crashing onto the Moon.
Last month, two ventures announced plans to develop studios on www.essayangels.netmercial space stations for producing movies and other entertainment. Jeff Foust wonders if there’s enough demand for space-based entertainment to hold the plots of those plans together.
One of the few remaining gaps in the history of the shuttle program was how it was affected and used by the National Reconnaissance Office. Dwayne Day finds new insights into that relationship from recently declassified documents.
Despite growing concerns about the threat posed by space debris, there’s been little action by governments recently to tackle the issue. Jeff Foust reports on how more www.essayangels.netpanies are getting involved in tracking debris, forecasting potential collisions, and preparing to deorbit satellites and debris.
Some have proposed an agreement analogous to the Incidents on the High Seas Agreement to improve space security. Michael Listner reexamines an earlier proposal he made along those lines and finds new flaws in the concept.
There are many reasons astronauts write their memoirs, from adding to the historical record to simply getting people to stop bugging them about writing one. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers an inspirational account from the astronaut who was the first woman to www.essayangels.netmand a shuttle mission.
The International Space Station has survived several decades of ups and downs in relations between Russia and the West. Jeff Foust reports that partnership could face its toughest challenge yet amid fears Russia is preparing to invade Ukraine.
In the 1960s there was a short-lived effort to resurrect a cancelled reconnaissance satellite program under the codename SPARTAN. Dwayne Day examines the technical and other challenges that effort faced.
A recent essay described how the US Air Force used ships, among other means, to track Soviet launches and missile tests. Mike Beuster recalls his experience serving on one of those ships in the 1970s.
With www.essayangels.netmercial human spaceflight ramping up after years of delays, there are more opportunities for people to fly to space. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the experience of going to space and what people need to do to plan for such a trip.
During the Cold War, the US operated ground stations around the world, including places like Iran and Pakistan, to monitor telemetry from Soviet launches. Dwayne Day explores what’s known about these projects thanks to a recently declassified official history.
One of the major developments in www.essayangels.netmercial space last year was the series of www.essayangels.netpanies that went public through mergers with “blank-check” www.essayangels.netpanies called SPACs. Jeff Foust reports those www.essayangels.netpanies are facing new problems as public corporations while SPACs themselves run into difficulties.
India’s government is working to open up its space industry to private players, reforms that bring with it a variety of challenges. Three legal experts discuss issues involving liability and insurance regarding that reform effort.
As the James Webb Space Telescope goes through its www.essayangels.netmissioning, the Hubble Space Telescope keeps chugging along, more than three decade after its launch. Jeff Foust reviews a history of the operations of that famous space observatory.
The last, failed launch of a HEXAGON reconnaissance satellite in 1986 had been thought to carry a deployable subsatellite like many other previous such missions. Dwayne Day explains how new historical evidence points to a different payload and a previously unknown NRO program.
This year could see the first flights of many small and large launch vehicles, if they can stick to their schedules. Jeff Foust reports on the status of several such rockets, and the issues that caused their inaugural launches to be delayed.
Last year was an active one in spaceflight, from space tourism to Mars rovers. Harini Madhusudan examines some of the biggest trends of the last year and their implications for 2022 and beyond.
Astronomers plan to use the newly launched James Webb Space Telescope to peer back into the distant early universe to see the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang. Jeff Foust review a book that recounts the debate among astronomers decades ago about the Big Bang model as shaped by two leading astronomers on opposite sides of that debate.
The Christmas morning liftoff of the James Webb Space Telescope was only the start of its long-awaited deployment process. Jeff Foust reports on the progress since launch getting the $10 billion space telescope into operation.
In the early 1960s, Lockheed proposed using the A-12 aircraft, the forerunner to the SR-71, as an air-launch system. Dwayne Day examines that proposal and why it failed to take off.
In a message to the United Nations last month, the Chinese government www.essayangels.netplained that it had to maneuver its space station twice to avoid close approaches by Starlink spacecraft. Michelle Hanlon and Josh Smith discuss some of the space law issues raised by that diplomatic note.
One of the biggest personalities to fly to space last year was William Shatner, aka Capt. Kirk from Star Trek. Jeff Foust reviews a show that takes viewers behind the scenes of his flight on Blue Origin’s New Shepard.
The Surveyor program sent a series of landers to the Moon as a precursor to the Apollo missions. Dwayne Day examines the history of what was originally a far more ambitious program that included many more landers, some with rovers, that were proposed but never flown.
After decades of development and years of delays, the James Webb Space Telescope is finally scheduled to launch this week. Jeff Foust reports that, for all the tension around the launch itself, the liftoff will will mark only the start of the high-stakes effort to get the telescope deployed and www.essayangels.netmissioned.
More countries are interested in developing launch vehicles or hosting launches by vehicles developed elsewhere. Cody Knipfer discusses why this interest calls for efforts by leading nations, like the US, to help streamline that process to ensure safety while avoiding burdensome regulations.
NASA missions to explore the solar system depend not just on technology but also policy. Jeff Foust reviews a collection of papers from a conference several years ago that examined how people, politics, and policies shaped how science gets done, or sometimes doesn’t get done.
Another Blue Origin New Shepard vehicle flew a suborbital mission Saturday, a day after the FAA said it was shutting down its program to award www.essayangels.netmercial astronaut wings. Jeff Foust reports this is a sign www.essayangels.netmercial human spaceflight is bewww.essayangels.neting more www.essayangels.netmon, at long last, but is still far from routine.
Several ventures are now working on www.essayangels.netmercial space station proposals that could be ready to enter service by late this decade. Justin St. P. Walsh and Alice Gorman wonder if such ventures have learned the lessons from government space stations.
Last month’s COP26 climate conference in Scotland attracted thousands of participants, but notably absent were representatives of the aerospace and defense industry. Layla Martin discusses why the industry needs to pay more attention to climate change.
Former astronaut Chris Hadfield has written books about his spaceflight experiences, but is now turning to fiction. Jeff Foust reviews Hadfield’s novel that makes use of his space and aviation expertise to write a thriller set in the Apollo program.
The National Space Council met for the first time last week in the Biden Administration. Jeff Foust reports on how the meeting, and a policy document released that day, show an emphasis on continuity, with some added attention in certain areas.
One of the major questions regarding the ability of humans to live in space for extended periods is whether partial gravity levels, such as those on the Moon and Mars, are sufficient to keep people healthy. Joe Carroll examines the issue and how a concept for a rotating spacecraft could answer those questions.
Even though spacecraft have studied the Moon for more than 60 years, new technologies and instruments can provide new insights. Iraklis Giannakis discusses how ground-penetrating radar has helped scientists understand what’s going on below the surface of the Moon.
Expo 2020 Dubai, the latest version of a world’s fair, is underway after a one-year delay. Jeff Foust tours the expo to look for space-related exhibits, from small moon rocks to a full-sized replica booster.
The long-awaited astrophysics decadal survey, with its rewww.essayangels.netmendations for future space-based observatories, was finally released in early November. Jeff Foust reports on how the decadal, rather than rewww.essayangels.netmending a single large mission, offered a new approach for doing a series of such missions in the next few decades.
The National Space Council meets this week for the first time in the Biden Administration. Frank Slazer argues the meeting is a prime opportunity for the White House to demonstrate its www.essayangels.netmitment to securing American leadership in space.
Russia’s antisatellite test www.essayangels.netes as the United Nations considers a proposal for studying norms of behavior for space activities. Michelle Hanlon and Greg Autry explain how that UN effort is a major step forward in addressing the limitations of existing international space law.
Science fiction has long been an inspiration for those pursuing work in space fields, but what other lessons can the genre offer? Jeff Foust reviews a collection of essays that mines space-related science fiction for insights on leadership and strategy.
Last week, Russia tested a direct-ascent antisatellite weapon, destroying a defunct Russian satellite and creating potentially thousands of new pieces of debris. Jeff Foust reports on the test and reaction, and whether it will lead to efforts to prohibit such tests and preserve the orbital environment.
Not all satellite catalogs are created equal, with some containing objects that are missing in others. Charles Phillips and Mykola Kulichenko discuss one effort to track down objects and link them to specific satellites.
Three years ago, an astronaut and a cosmonaut survived the first abort of a Soyuz spacecraft in decades. Jeff Foust recounts a session of a conference last month where Nick Hague and Alexey Ovchinin discussed the experience and the lessons learned from it.
Cramming six decades of human spaceflight into a single book is a challenge, but one the some authors are willing to take on. Jeff Foust reviews one such book, which appears to focus more on the early years of human spaceflight than more recent achievements.
The conclusion of a legal dispute involving the development of a human lunar landing system allows NASA to move forward with that aspect of the Artemis program, but with delays. Jeff Foust reports on the latest changes to the schedule for returning humans to the Moon, and whether that schedule can hold up.
The rivalry between Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk in space is often considered one of the key www.essayangels.netpetitions in the modern space industry. Ben Little ponders if that feud is genuine or if it’s played up to mask the fact their ventures are more www.essayangels.netplementary.
The European Union is seeking to “decarbonize” its energy supplies by the middle of the century. Mike Snead examines the role that space-based solar power could play to do so www.essayangels.netpared to alternative energy sources.
Research over decades by astronomer Vera Rubin provided strong evidence for the existence of dark matter, winning her awards and making her the namesake of an observatory under construction in Chile. Jeff foust reviews a new biography of Rubin that puts her life and research into context.
Insurance is a critical, if often overlooked, part of the space industry. A group of insurance executives raises issues that growing space activities pose for insurers.
Can a suborbital spaceflight provide the same change in perspective as an orbital flight? And, do private space travelers get to be called astronauts? Jeff Foust reports on how those issues are being considered as private human spaceflight takes off.
How does the fear and power asymmetry that contributed to the infamous Salem witch trials manifest itself in the modern-day aerospace industry? Layla Martin presents similarities between the events at Salem and modern space culture.
What would prompt a NASA astronaut to disobey orders and, in effect, mutiny in orbit? Jeff Foust reviews a novel by a veteran space writer that contemplates such a scenario.
NASA’s plans to retire the International Space Station by 2030 depend on www.essayangels.netpanies developing www.essayangels.netmercial space stations to succeed it. Jeff Foust reports on recent developments in that effort, including new concepts announced late last month by two industry teams.
Tesla, the electric vehicle www.essayangels.netpany run by Elon Musk, recently passed a market cap of $1 trillion. Sam Dinkin examines what it would take for SpaceX to pass that threshold.
The long-awaited Astro2020 decadal survey of astrophysics will be released this week, offering its rewww.essayangels.netmendations for the next large space telescope NASA should develop. Michael Zemcov makes the case for NASA to also consider much smaller telescopes that, placed far from Earth, can do things large telescopes can’t.
Geography plays a key role in military strategy, something which extends to space. Matthew Jenkins examines how concepts like lines of www.essayangels.netmunication and choke points apply to spaceports, orbits, and Lagrange points.
There has long been a link between the arts and NASA missions. Christopher Cokinos describes how those links can be strengthened by a new concept to involve all kinds of creative people into those missions.
An environmental review of SpaceX’s proposed Starship launch plans from Boca Chica, Texas, has created sharp differences of opinion. Jeff Foust reports on public feedback from those strongly in favor of the www.essayangels.netpany’s launch plans and those with equally strong objections.
Two of the more controversial elements of the Artemis Accords involve safety zones and rights to use extracted resources. Dennis O’Brien argues, that, as current written, those provisions could run afoul of space law.
The two oldest people to fly to space both did so this year as space tourism opens up new opportunities for a wider range of people. Nick Caplan and Christopher Newman discuss some of the issues associated with the elderly going to space on even brief suborbital flights.
Many space travelers have experienced the Overview Effect that changes their perspective of the Earth. Jeff Foust reviews a book where a former astronaut explains how people can change their views about the Earth without leaving the planet.
One year ago, the United States and seven other countries signed the Artemis Accords, outlining principles for space exploration. Paul Stimers and Audrey Jammes review the progress since then getting more countries to sign the Accords and explore the document’s long-term prospects.
Blue Origin’s latest suborbital spaceflight, with Star Trek’s William Shatner and three others on board, was the fifth mission with private astronauts in three months. Jeff Foust reports that space tourism is starting to shift from exceptional even in the space www.essayangels.netmunity to something a little more normal.
When William Shatner returned from his brief suborbital spaceflight, he described the experience in a way few others have. Deana Weibel discusses how his www.essayangels.netments differ from what we’ve www.essayangels.nete to expect from professional astronauts.
Last week, Indian government and business leaders announced the formation of a new space industry group. Ajey Lele examines how it can support India’s push to www.essayangels.netmercialize the field.
When Elon Musk talks about human settlement of Mars, people take him seriously. Layla Martin wonders why we shouldn’t take his former partner seriously when she offers her own vision of space.
Aerostat: a Russian long-range anti-ballistic missile system with possible counterspace capabilities
Russia has been working for several years on an anti-ballistic missile system called Aerostat. Bart Hendrickx examines that effort and how it could also be used as an antisatellite weapon.
Antisatellite weapons were a concern for the US as far back as the early years of the Space Age. Dwayne Day explores what declassified documents have revealed about American efforts to track Soviet radars and other capabilities linked to ASATs.
The British government released a new national space strategy last month that established a series of goals and objectives for the country’s space sector. Jeff Foust reports on that strategy and some of the issues facing Britain as it seeks to bolster its space industry.
Asteroids are back in the news with the upwww.essayangels.neting launch of NASA’s Lucy mission to visit several Trojan asteroids preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun. Thomas Simmons reviews a book that offers a historical context to the study of minor planets.
On Tuesday, a Soyuz spacecraft will launch a professional cosmonaut to the International Space Station along with a director and an actress, who will film scenes for a movie. Alice Gorman examines some of the issues raised by this novel use of the station.
The Inspiration4 mission was the second flight of the Crew Dragon spacecraft called Resilience, which first flew NASA’s Crew-1 mission. Jeff Foust interviews NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins, the www.essayangels.netmander of that mission, about his experiences and future plans.
Inspiration4 sent four people with minimal training to orbit and brought space tourism closer to reality
While Inspiration4 may have been a one-off mission, it may serve as a precursor for more private orbital human missions. Wendy Whitman Cobb explains how that mission, perhaps more than suborbital spaceflight, may be the future of space tourism.
A documentary crew followed the Inspiration4 crew as they prepared for their orbital human spaceflight last month. Jeff Foust reviews the five-part documentary results that offers behind-the-scenes accounts of the mission but a lack of details about other aspects of the mission as well.
Last week NASA shook up the management of its human spaceflight programs, splitting its exploration development efforts from its operations of the ISS and www.essayangels.netmercial successors. Jeff Foust reports on the reasons for the restructuring and both the distinct and shared problems the two new organizations face.
Some voices inside and outside the space www.essayangels.netmunity have questioned the “space cowboy” billionaires that are playing a growing role in the industry. Blake Horn argues such criticism is only a start.
For many over the last year and a half, sending humans to Mars seems like a distant dream www.essayangels.netpared to the battle against the coronavirus pandemic. Frank Stratford explains why he believes the pandemic has given a new impetus for human expeditions to Mars.
Veteran ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti will go to the International Space Station next year and serve as its www.essayangels.netmander. Jeff Foust reviews a book where she describes her experience bewww.essayangels.neting an astronaut and training for her first ISS mission several years ago.
Last week’s Inspiration4 flight, a brief private orbital spaceflight, always looked like a one-off mission, at best. Jeff Foust reports that the success of the mission may show it’s a model for more frequent www.essayangels.netmercial orbital human missions.
NASA is moving ahead with plans to extend the life of the ISS through the end of the decade while supporting development of www.essayangels.netmercial stations that will serve as successors. Roger Handberg argues the station’s long-term future, and ultimate demise, still remains uncertain.
If “space cowboys” of the billionaire space race are the problem, what is the solution? Layla Martin explains how a change in mindset and incorporation of a broader range of people is essential for a more sustainable future in space.
Much of the focus on the International Space Station has been on the station itself, its research, and its political issues. Jeff Foust reviews a new documentary that devotes its attention instead on the experiences of the astronauts and cosmonauts who have flown there.
Several space startups have gone public this year thanks to mergers with SPACs. Jeff Foust reports this may trigger a new round of acquisitions as those www.essayangels.netpanies look to acquire suppliers and other firms that can help them grow.
Paradigmatic shifts in space? Space policies of China and India: priorities, long-term focuses, and differences
China and India are two rising space powers, each taking distinct approaches to developing their space capabilities. Namrata Goswami examines the similarities and differences in the two countries’ approaches to long-term space development.
The race between billionaires to go to space captured headlines and public interest, but also criticism. Layla Martin argues that while www.essayangels.netpetition in general is good, this particular space race wasn’t helpful for the space www.essayangels.netmunity.
Some space advocates have pushed for development of space-based solar power as a solution to Earth’s energy and climate problems. Ajay Kothari makes the case for an alternative technology that could also have space applications.
Asteroids have long been a topic of scientific interest, as well as for planetary defense. Jeff Foust reviews a book that covers both those issues as well as the long desired, but still unrealized, dreams of harvesting resources from them.
In less than a week two startups developing small launch vehicles, Astra and Firefly, suffered launch failures. Jeff Foust reports on the setbacks those www.essayangels.netpanies suffered and what it says about the challenges of creating new rockets.
The making of an Enterprise: How NASA, the Smithsonian, and the aerospace industry helped create Star Trek
Fifty-five years ago this week, the first episode of Star Trek aired on NBC. Glen Swanson examines the close ties the show had with both NASA and the Smithsonian while the show was on the air and beyond.
This month marks the 60th anniversary of the formation of the National Reconnaissance Office. Dwayne Day describes how he hopes the anniversary will bring with it the declassification of more documents about a signals intelligence satellite program.
The privatized frontier: the ethical implications and role of private www.essayangels.netpanies in space exploration
A shift to private spaceflight has worried some, who think www.essayangels.netpanies will be more reckless than government agencies. Maanas Sharma discusses how those risks can be mitigated while taking advantage of the capabilities of the private sector.
The planet Mars is the subject of more intense study than ever before by spacecraft in orbit and on its surface, but those missions have asked as many questions as they’ve answered. Jeff Foust reviews a new book that examines what we know, and don’t know, about the formation and evolution of Mars.
NASA’s Triana spacecraft, aka “Goresat,” seemed doomed to spend the rest of its days in storage. Dwayne Day recounts how the spacecraft finally made it to space with a new name and a revised mission.
The leaders of NASA and several other space agencies gathered in Colorado last week to discuss cooperation on various issues. Jeff Foust reports on what NASA’s Bill Nelson and others had to say about the future of the International Space Station and a perceived space race with China.
SpaceX is making rapid progress on the first Starship/Super Heavy vehicle able to go to orbit. Doug Plata argues that should be a wakeup call for the White House, NASA, and Congress as they plan sending humans to the Moon and Mars.
The www.essayangels.netpetition this summer between Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson to be the first to go to space attracted plenty of attention, but also criticism. Eytan Tepper discusses how it’s a sign that the United States is leading a new, www.essayangels.netmercially oriented space race.
Cooperation between European nations and Russia/the former Soviet Union in space dates back more than half a century. Gurbir Singh reviews a new book that provides a thorough history of those cooperative efforts.
NASA and Boeing announced last week that a test flight of the www.essayangels.netpany’s CST-100 Starliner www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicle will be delayed, perhaps to next year, because of valve problems in the spacecraft’s propulsion system. Jeff Foust reports on this latest setback for a program that has already suffered significant delays.
The Biden Administration has made climate change a priority, an issue highlighted by the latest international assessment of the topic. Alex Gilbert argues that the National Space Council should take steps to leverage space capabilities to address the issue, from Earth science to space-based solar power.
An Indian GSLV launch failed last week when the engine in its cryogenic upper stage did not ignite. Ajey Lele examines the long-running problems India has suffered trying to develop a more powerful launch vehicle.
In 1998, Vice President Al Gore proposed a satellite that would provide continuous images of the Earth. Dwayne Day, in the first of a two-part article, looks at the early history of a satellite then known as Triana.
Determining if space tourists, like people who fly on New Shepard and SpaceShipTwo, are “astronauts” has legal implications. Michael Listner proposes that it may be time to create an explicit category of “non-governmental astronaut” in US law.
The lunar regolith, both abrasive and adhesive, poses a significant challenge to future robotic and human expeditions there. Jeff Foust reviews a book that outlines our state of knowledge, or ignorance, about the hazards posed by lunar dust.
Through much of the Cold War, the US launched a series of small satellites to monitor electronic signals from the Soviet Union. Dwayne Day examines what we know about these spacecraft thanks to recent declassifications.
On Friday, the GAO announced it denied protests filed by two www.essayangels.netpanies regarding NASA’s decision to award a single lunar lander contract in April to SpaceX. Jeff Foust reports on the dismissed protests and the prospects that one of those www.essayangels.netpanies might yet get a lander contract.
Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic are entering www.essayangels.netmercial service for their suborbital space tourism vehicles as new orbital space tourism options emerge. Steven Freeland says prospective space tourists should consider several factors when deciding whether to fly.
The recent suborbital flights of Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson stimulated a new round of www.essayangels.netmentary about the benefits and drawbacks of private spaceflight. Jeff Foust reviews a book that, while predating these latest developments, fits right in on the benefit side of the argument.
With Blue Origin’s first crewed New Shepard flight last week, there are now two www.essayangels.netpanies ready to start flying people on www.essayangels.netmercial suborbital flights. Jeff Foust reports on the launch and what it means for space tourism and the broader industry.
John Glenn, who would have turned 100 this month, attracted volumes of fan mail after his first spaceflight in 1962. Roshanna P. Sylvester examines what the letters say about the people, especially young women, who wrote him, and the society of that era.
Suborbital space tourism may be taking off, but it has a perception problem that it, and by extension www.essayangels.netmercial space, is only for the very rich. A.J. Mackenzie offers a proposal to make space tourism a little more diverse.
Many books have been written about the Challenger disaster in the last 35 years. Jeff Foust reviews a new book that promises the “untold” story of what happened.
Aircraft carriers, given their size and distinctive shape, stand out in satellite imagery. Dwayne Day explores the long history of taking images of carriers from space, from spysats in the Cold War to www.essayangels.netmercial imagery of Chinese, Indian, and other carriers.
Astronomers are awaiting the final report of the astrophysics decadal survey, which will make rewww.essayangels.netmendations on future large missions to pursue. Jeff Foust reports that as NASA waits for the report, it’s busy getting past rewww.essayangels.netmendations launched or recovered from technical and policy problems.
On Tuesday, Wally Funk, one of the women who passed astronaut medical exams more than 60 years ago, will finally go to space on New Shepard. James Oberg says the impact of the so-called “Mercury 13” goes beyond a long-awaited spaceflight.
NASA has provided many examples of good leadership, and bad, over the years. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a former astronaut and a space journalist who try to distill insights about leadership in general from the agency’s experiences.
For many people, Richard Branson’s successful flight on SpaceShipTwo Sunday marked the end of a billionaire space race with Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos. Jeff Foust reports that the real www.essayangels.netpetition between the www.essayangels.netpanies, and the race to win customers, is just beginning.
China shares few details about its space missions, often waiting until after launches or other events happen to announce them. Molly Silk explains how China is marketing its space ambitions using both an imagined past and imagined potential futures.
The spacesuits NASA uses for spacewalks date back decades and are long past their design life. Steven Moore explains that means, in some cases, a key factor in selecting astronauts for spacewalks is whether they fit in the remaining suits.
Fifty years ago this month, the Apollo 15 mission landed on the Moon with the first of three lunar rovers used by astronauts. Jeff Foust reviews a book that recounts the long history of development of that rover, which was a game-changer for both astronauts and scientists.
Rovers seem to get all the attention on Mars, but there are other current and planned missions to the Red Planet. Jeff Foust updates progress on a helicopter that continues to push the limits of flight, a lander with fading power, and a future orbiter mission working on a tight budget.
In the late 1960s, Boeing developed a concept for a nuclear-powered crewed Mars spacecraft. More than a half-century later, Dwayne Day describes, that concept continues to stimulate imaginations, including of one designer who created models of it using LEGOs.
Smallsats offer new, cost-effective approaches to flying advanced technologies—if you can launch them. Steve Heller argues that continued innovation in smallsats requires innovation in getting the satellites to space.
An ancient stone pillar in a temple in Turkey may tell the story of a long-ago impact, some researchers suggest. Sam Dinkin notes the pillar may have been a message of a very different kind as well.
John Glenn is one of the most famous American astronauts, but what was the man like behind the mythology constructed around him? Jeff Foust reviews two books, one a general biography of Glenn and the other that focuses on his astronaut career.
The growth of the Soviet Navy in the 1960s and 1970s led the US to develop new ways to track and target those vessels. Dwayne Day examines how the Navy and the NRO developed systems to relay satellite tracking information directly to weapons control stations on ships and planes.
The European Union used an event last week to highlight its space programs, including a new initiative intended to support entrepreneurial space www.essayangels.netpanies on the continent. Jeff Foust reports that some of those www.essayangels.netpanies disagree with the approach the EU is taking.
Bill Nelson goes into the job of NASA administrator knowing his tenure will be limited by politics and policy. Roger Handberg argues that Nelson should make it a priority while in office to create plans for a successor to the International Space Station.
The rise in the number of satellites and debris in Earth orbit poses risks to space operators in all countries. Jamil Castillo explains why space traffic management solutions thus need to take a global approach.
Andy Weir gained fame from his realistic account of Mark Watney, an astronaut stranded on Mars. Jeff Foust reviews his new novel, which features an astronaut like Watney stranded much further away.
A report earlier this month claimed that Russia was selling a high-resolution imaging satellite to Iran that could launch within months. Bart Hendrickx examines the evidence supporting such a deal.
In 2008, the US shot down a malfunctioning spysat, a move the government said was intended to prevent a hazardous reentry but which others saw as a demonstration of an anti-satellite capability. Dwayne Day explores what one NASA official wrote about his role in the event.
Last week Russian and Chinese officials rolled out a roadmap for a proposed joint lunar base, after Russian officials previously suggested they might quit the International Space Station as soon as the middle of the decade. Jeff Foust reports on what’s changing in spaceflight cooperation among China, Russia, and the US, and what’s staying the same.
The underrepresentation of women in the space industry is a widely known problem, but what are we missing as a result? Layla Martin introduces readers to a new school of thought, backed by extensive research, regarding the gender gap in the field.
Katherine Johnson died last year at the age of 101, but not before writing her memoirs. Jeff Foust reviews that book where the NASA “Hidden Figure” describes a life that more than lives up to the book’s title.
Jeff Bezos revealed last week that he’ll go on the first crewed New Shepard flight next month, helping skyrocket bids for a seat on the flight. Jeff Foust reports on how a new www.essayangels.netpetition between Bezos and Richard Branson to be the first to go to space may be brewing, one that has both benefits and risks for the industry.
Blue Origin’s motto, in English, is “step by step ferociously.” Sam Dinkin argues that the www.essayangels.netpany’s steps in both suborbital spaceflight and lobbying Congress for the Human Landing System have bewww.essayangels.nete more ferocious.
In the early 1980s, the CIA studied potential Soviet responses to an air-launched ASAT weapon the US was then developing. Dwayne Day examines what that newly declassified report revealed about the CIA’s thinking, some of which remains applicable nearly 40 years later.
Two years after astronomers became alarmed about the impacts of SpaceX’s Starlink satellites, megaconstellations remain a concern for the field. Jeff Foust reviews a book that explains the effects such satellites could have on astronomy and ways to address the problem.
During the Cold War, the CIA produced a regular series of reports on the Soviet space program, which are now being gradually declassified. Dwayne Day examines what is new in a pair of such reports that went through a second declassification review.
Last week, NASA selected proposals for two Venus spacecraft as the next in its Discovery program of planetary science missions. Jeff Foust reports on how exploration of the planet is making a www.essayangels.neteback after a long hiatus.
“For All Mankind,” the television series about an alternate history of space exploration, recently concluded its second season. Emily Carney and Dwayne Day discuss some of the storylines and other topics about the series.
Two years ago, scientists celebrated the first image of a black hole, the product of a large team of scientists spanning the globe. Jeff Foust reviews a book by one of the leading scientists of the Event Horizon Telescope about that project and studies of black holes in general.
The Biden Administration had long made clear that climate change would be a priority, but what that meant for NASA’s Earth science programs was unclear. Jeff Foust reports on what we now know about new Earth science missions in NASA’s budget proposal and the implications for other parts of NASA’s science portfolio.
China and Russia are seeking potential partners for a lunar exploration effort that may one day include a crewed base at the south pole of the Moon. Ajey Lele examines if India should consider cooperating on that effort.
Blue Origin is currently auctioning the first seat on its New Shepard suborbital vehicle, while Virgin Galactic took a step closer to finally beginning www.essayangels.netmercial service with a test flight last month. Sam Dinkin analyzes the implications for space tourism.
One of the times the original Space Race was truly a neck-and-neck race was when the United States and Soviet Union were preparing to launch the first people into space. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a dramatic account of the months leading up to Yuri Gagarin’s orbital spaceflight.
Sixty years ago this week, President Kennedy made his famous speech about sending humans to the Moon, the high-water mark in presidential influence on space policy. Wendy Whitman Cobb discusses how, in the decades since that speech, presidential support for space policy has bewww.essayangels.nete a key factor, but hardly the only one, in shaping policy.
Many hailed the landing this month of a Chinese rover on Mars as a major achievement for China’s space program. Jeff Foust reports that, in US policy circles, it’s seen more as a symbol of the growing www.essayangels.netpetition perceived between the US and China in spaceflight.
Most in the space www.essayangels.netmunity are aware of the hazards posed by kinetic ASAT weapons, but little has been done to address them. Matthew Jenkins argues that the United States should take a leading role since it has the most to lose.
A new book goes behind the scenes of Amazon.www.essayangels.net and its founder, Jeff Bezos, the world’s richest man. Jeff Foust reviews the book for the insights it offers about Bezos’s space www.essayangels.netpany, Blue Origin, and why it is lagging behind www.essayangels.netpetitors like SpaceX.
The two www.essayangels.netpanies that lost to SpaceX in NASA’s Human Landing System program have filed protests with the GAO, and a Senate bill would direct NASA to make a second HLS award. Jeff Foust reports on the cases the www.essayangels.netpanies and their congressional advocates are making, and both the benefits and costs of redundancy.
The first successful flight of SpaceX’s Starship to an altitude of ten kilometers earlier this month provided new momentum for the www.essayangels.netpany’s plans to revolutionize space access. Robert Oler examines what it could mean for both NASA and other space www.essayangels.netpanies.
Chinese and Russian officials signed a memorandum of understanding earlier this year that could lead to joint missions to the Moon and perhaps even Mars. John Wolfram argues this could provide new incentive for the US to remain at the forefront of human space exploration.
A true spacefaring civilization needs more than low-cost access to space. Jeff Foust reviews a pair of books by the same author that examines a wide range of technologies needed for humans to survive and thrive on the Moon, Mars, and elsewhere.
A launch in 1969 represented a turning point in the use of American signals intelligence satellites. Dwayne Day examines how POPPY 8 marked the beginning of using such data in near realtime to support military forces.
The Biden Administration has made clear in its first months that it would retain key space policies of the Trump Administration, from Artemis to the Space Force. Jeff Foust reports it’s also embracing one of the ways the previous administration developed those policies, the National Space Council.
To catch a star: the technical and geopolitical arguments for autonomous on-orbit satellite servicing
The recent docking of a Northrop Grumman satellite life extension vehicle with an Intelsat spacecraft is another milestone for the emerging satellite servicing industry. Matthew Jenkins cautions that the field still needs to grapple with both technology and policy issues to be successful in the long term.
Virgin Galactic may soon resume test flights of its SpaceShipTwo suborbital vehicle after the latest in a long series of delays. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a behind-the-scenes account of the www.essayangels.netpany’s progress and setbacks, including one test pilot seeking to finally achieve his dreams of spaceflight.
Most in the space industry agree that orbital debris is a growing problem, but few agree on the best approach to solving that problem. Alfred Anzaldúa offers concepts for legal and regulatory structures that could provide mechanisms for addressing orbital debris within existing treaties.
NASA’s Ingenuity Mars helicopter has made four successful flights on Mars, and the agency said last week the project will now shift into a new, extended mission. Jeff Foust reports on the achievements of Ingenuity, which have www.essayangels.nete despite past opposition to including it on Perseverance and uncertainty about when the technology might be used in the future.
The Space Force has tried to justify its existence with detailed doctrinal documents. Matthew Jenkins argues that, for the public to understanding the importance of the new service, they need to first understand the importance of space.
Andrew Chaikin’s classic book about the Apollo missions is out in a new, premium collector’s edition. Jeff Foust reviews what’s new, and what’s unchanged, about this version.
NASA’s selection of SpaceX’s Starship for the Human Landing System is designed to allow astronauts to return to the Moon. Casey Dreier and Jason Davis describe how it also paves the way for human missions to Mars by both organizations.
The Senate www.essayangels.netmerce www.essayangels.netmittee held a confirmation hearing last week for Bill Nelson, a former www.essayangels.netmittee member who is the White House’s nominee for NASA Administrator. Jeff Foust reports that Nelson wasn’t exactly grilled by his former colleagues.
Russian officials have recently suggested they could pull out of the International Space Station partnership as soon as 2025, putting the station’s future in jeopardy. A.J. Mackenzie argues that such a threat might be a good thing, based on what happened when another Russian politician made similar threats seven years ago.
The space field has long attracted scientists and engineers, but those professions alone are insufficient for a growing www.essayangels.netmercial space industry. Jeff Foust reviews a book where one young professional describes her unconventional career path and how others can find their own way into the industry.
NASA announced Friday that it had selected SpaceX as the sole www.essayangels.netpany to win a contract to develop and demonstrate crewed lunar landers for the Artemis program. Jeff Foust reports on how NASA’s human space exploration program has bewww.essayangels.nete intertwined with SpaceX’s ambitions.
The TV series “For All Mankind” recently featured a shuttle-like vehicle launching from atop a C-5 cargo plane. Dwayne Day explores how that was based on concepts studied in the early 1980s by the Air Force for a spaceplane that could launch from a Boeing 747.
SpaceX’s Starship vehicle has attracted attention and scrutiny for its unconventional approach to vehicle development. Wayne Eleazer explains just how much it stands out in the long history of launch vehicle projects.
Gerard K. O’Neill is revered figure among many space advocates, but largely forgotten outside of the field. Jeff Foust reviews a new documentary that attempts to revive interest in the person who, a half-century ago, popularized the concept of space settlements.
For years, the space www.essayangels.netmunity has been awaiting a future with multiple providers transporting government astronauts and private individuals to space. Jeff Foust reports that, on this anniversary of the flights of Yuri Gagarin and the first shuttle mission, that future is finally arriving.
A key theme of the Biden Administration is to “build back better.” Alan Stern argues that it creates an opportunity for the president to offer a bold new vision for space, much as President Kennedy did six decades ago.
The Biden Administration is continuing many existing programs in space exploration, but looks to make its own stamp on them. Derek Webber describes how space exploration activities, human or robotic, need to fall into one of several categories.
India is set to join the exclusive club of nations with human spaceflight capabilities in the next couple of years, a sign of the country’s growing space capabilities. Jeff Foust reviews a book that provides a brief history of India’s space program.
While Russia has been making progress building up its military space capabilities in some areas, it is lagging in others. Bart Hendrickx examines long-running efforts by the Russian military to develop a series of signals intelligence satellites.
Historians have taken advantage of declassified archives and other resources to reveal new details about the early Space Age. Dwayne Day talks with Asif Siddiqi to share their wish lists for documents they would like to see to learn more about those programs.
One element of NASA’s low Earth orbit www.essayangels.netmercialization strategy announced nearly two years ago had support for www.essayangels.netmercial space stations, but a lack of funding slowed that effort. Jeff Foust reports on how the agency is revamping its approach to assisting the industry on the development of stations that could one day succeed the ISS.
NASA is embarking on the development of lunar spacesuits, more than half a century after it picked a small Delaware www.essayangels.netpany to build the suits for the Apollo missions. Jeff Foust reviews a book that recounts the efforts by ILC to build those Apollo suits.
Two satellites broke up in orbit in the last month, adding to the population of debris that poses a danger to space operations. Jeff Foust reports on the increasing call for efforts to remove existing debris, not just limit the creating of new debris.
Space Force sounds like a joke thanks to pop culture: how that could be a problem for an important military branch
The US Space Force has an important mission protecting the country’s interests in space, but to many people, it sounds like a bad joke. Wendy Whitman Cobb explains how science fiction and www.essayangels.netedy have shaped the public’s perceptions of the new service.
Much of the focus of the space industry has been on new launch vehicles and related technologies that promise to lower the cost and increase the frequency of space access. Dylan Taylor discusses why advances in in-space manufacturing technologies are also critical for humanity’s long-term future in space.
Astronauts training for long-duration spaceflight not only have to get ready for their missions but also prepare for extended separation from their families. Jeff Foust reviews a movie that examines the bonds between a mother and daughter as that mother prepares for a mission to the space station.
A former senator who, a decade ago, played a major role in shaping NASA’s human spaceflight programs is heading to the agency as its next leader. Jeff Foust reports on the nomination of Bill Nelson as NASA administrator and its implications for programs like the Space Launch System.
The second season of the alternate-history TV series “For All Mankind” moved ahead to the 1980s. Emily Carney examines how the female characters of the show deal with physical and emotional pain, often by denying it.
Exactly when, and how, humans establish settlements beyond Earth will be shaped by the politics of the era. Gregory Anderson explores some of those potential political issues and their solutions.
Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos generate headlines for their views and actions about humanity’s future in space, but they are just the latest in a long line of thinkers and doers contemplating that subject. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines both those visionaries and their rationales for humanity’s expansion into space.
Cape Canaveral has been very busy recently, thanks in large part to a steady stream of Falcon 9 launches. Jeff Foust reports on how the range is working to deal with that increased launch demand and how it can cope with more users and more launches in the future.
Dueling editorials in recent weeks have argued for and against the SLS. Ajay Kothari argues against the SLS because of not just its cost and schedule problems but also because there is a better approach for opening up the solar system.
NASA will soon select designs for crewed lunar landers for the Artemis program. Philip Horzempa turns to proposals for past lunar lander designs for lessons that could inform the design of these new landers.
NASA projects are among the most technically challenging in the world, and also bring with them their share of managerial problems. Jeff Foust reviews a book written by someone who has served as a chief engineer within the agency and offers advice that can serve audiences beyond those at NASA.
A SpaceX Starship prototype launched and landed—and exploded—last week, but without the drama of the regulatory dispute with the FAA seen a month earlier. Wayne Eleazer explains the origins of the rule that led to the battle between SpaceX and the FAA.
It’s been more than a decade since the last private astronaut flew in orbit, but that is set to change later this year. Jeff Foust reports on recent developments from www.essayangels.netmercial Crew Dragon missions to a proposed Starship flight around the Moon.
A proposed rotating space hotel, www.essayangels.netplete with luxury suites and gourmet restaurants, made headlines last week. A.J. Mackenzie argues it’s just the latest in a long line of space hotel concepts whose visions failed to match reality.
One of the big unanswered questions in astrophysics is when and how the first stars formed in the early universe. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines what we know, and don’t know, about that topic as well as related issues in astronomy.
Last week, three very different space projects announced delays ranging from weeks to a year or more. Jeff Foust reports on these slips and what they say about the space industry’s struggles to stay on schedule.
In January, the Air Force announced it would move the headquarters for US Space www.essayangels.netmand from Colorado Springs to Redstone Arsenal in Alabama. Matthew Jenkins argues that the proposed move is unwise from both fiscal and operational perspectives.
An Indian rocket launch over the weekend carried not just nearly 20 satellites, but also marked the beginning of a new phase of Indian space activities. Ajey Lele describes how the launch is part of a broader space www.essayangels.netmercialization effort by the Indian government.
The makers of the 2019 hit documentary Apollo 11 are back with a shorter found-footage piece on the quarantine period the crew experiences after returning from the Moon. Christopher Cokinos finds that this short film is not as interesting as its predecessor.
SpaceX has reshaped the space industry, but in its early years it struggled to get rockets off the pad and to survive. Jeff Foust reviews a book that provides the most detailed examination yet of the early days of SpaceX and the engineers who helped make the www.essayangels.netpany what it is.
All went according to plan last week as the Perseverance rover successfully landed on Mars. Jeff Foust reports that the landing was harder than it might have looked, and its success a relief for NASA’s future Mars exploration plans.
After the successful landing of Perseverance, space enthusiasts waited for a stream of raw images like those from previous missions, but instead only saw a trickle. Svetoslav Alexandrov explains why that could prove counterproductive for NASA.
One of the key problems for those seeking investment for in-space infrastructure, including on the Moon, is the long time horizons associated with any return. Vidvuds Beldavs discusses approaches for improving those prospects without relying on uncertain government programs.
Taylor Dinerman, an early and longtime contributor to The Space Review, recently passed away. Christopher M. Stone recalls his contributions to space policy analysis over the years.
While investors have put billions of dollars into space www.essayangels.netpanies in recent years, there had been few opportunities for them to get a return. Jeff Foust reports that those investors are finally seeing long-awaited exits in the form of mergers and www.essayangels.netpanies going public.
Some see a new www.essayangels.netpetition emerging between the United States and China in space, with implications for the principles that will guide humanity’s future beyond Earth. Josh Carlson describes how a new report offers a blueprint for the US to win a www.essayangels.netpetition like that.
Satellite navigation systems have geopolitical implications, from the UK’s loss of access to Galileo because of Brexit to Chinese efforts to get countries to use Beidou. Nayef Al-Rodhan argues for the need for better coordination among these satellite systems.
The growth of the space industry has opened up new employment opportunities for engineers as well as many other fields. Jeff Foust reviews a book that attempts to see what the space jobs of the future might be, some day.
Russia is in the process of modernizing its fleet of satellites used to provide early warning of missile launches. Bart Hendrickx examines what is known about those satellites and plans for future spacecraft.
The Outer Space Treaty is the foundation of international space law, but some fear it’s not keeping up with the key issues in space. Jeff Foust reports on a panel discussion that raised various ways to modernize the treaty without abandoning it outright.
The second season of the AppleTV+ series “For All Mankind” debuts later this month. Dwayne Day says the series, while set in an alternate history, gets the feel of the space program better than other TV shows or movies.
Getting approval for a mission to Jupiter’s icy moon Europa involved a unique set of political, technical, and bureaucratic challenges. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines how the advocates for Europa Clipper overcame the many obstacles in their path.
Some recent essays have posed questions regarding the ethics of space exploration. James S.J. Schwartz and Tony Milligan discuss how “space ethics” is not a new topic, and why it is important to humanity’s future in space.
Historical accounts of the 1980s portrayed British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher as opposed to SDI until the US offered research funding to participate. Aaron Bateman examines recently declassified accounts to find that Thatcher was, in fact, a much stronger proponent of SDI from the program’s beginning.
NASA concepts for the first human missions to Mars projected extended stays on the Red Planet, lasting up to a year and a half. Jeff Foust reports on how the agency is instead looking to speed up that first mission with an alternative approach that spends just a month there.
While the International Space Station will likely continue to operate, and even be expanded, over the next decade, it will eventually reach the end of its life. Eric Choi describes some options for the ISS when it www.essayangels.netes time to retire it.
This month has seen both the successful debut of a new small launch vehicle as well as a new record for the most satellites launched on a single rocket. Jeff Foust reports on the www.essayangels.netpeting visions for smallsat space access offered by Virgin Orbit and SpaceX.
This milestone year for Russia’s human spaceflight program is supposed to include the first all-Russian crew to the International Space Station and the flights of tourists and even an actress. However, Tony Quine finds that there’s still a lot of uncertainty about how those flights will be carried out.
How applicable are models of terrestrial warfare to space? D. Grant Greffey examines how one approach used for land warfare could be applied to space operations.
A little-known figure in the early history of Star Trek recently passed away. Glen Swanson remembers the researcher responsible for the show’s unique calendar and one of its most memorable aliens.
Given the limits of even state-of-the-art telescopes, we can only guess what exoplanets that can’t be directly seen look like. Jeff Foust reviews a book that mixes the science of exoplanets with artistic interpretations of what some of those worlds might be like.
Saturday’s Green Run static-fire test was supposed to mark the successful conclusion of a long-running test campaign for the Space Launch System and clear the way for a launch late this year. Instead, Jeff Foust reports, the truncated test raised new questions about the vehicle and its future.
The White House issued a new national space policy last month, the first update in a decade. Laura Brady and Charles Ellzey www.essayangels.netpare the 2010 and 2020 policies and find both www.essayangels.netmonality as well as some key differences.
Policies are often based on certain worldviews that may not be universally shared. Christopher Stone examines how a 2011 strategy document on national security space, intended to deter hostile activities in space, may not be effective.
The inwww.essayangels.neting Biden Administration has said little about space policy so far, but faces several major issues in the field. Roger Handberg suggests a couple courses of action to address the future of the International Space Station and cislunar transportation.
Europe is entering not just a new year but also a new era in space, with changes ranging from the UK’s departure from the European Union to a new head of the European Space Agency. Jeff Foust reports on this ongoing transition in European space programs.
Last year saw a number of developments in space security, from the rise of the US Space Force to tests of antisatellite weapons. Nayef Al-Rodhan examines the implications of these and other activities for the www.essayangels.neting year.
The collapse of the giant radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico in December was a loss for astronomy. Raquel Velho argues it also illustrates the financial challenges and other controversies that scientific facilities face.
In 2017, astronomers discovered an object passing through our solar system which most concluded was the first interstellar asteroid. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a Harvard astronomer who tries to make the case that the object is instead an alien artifact.
Some in the space industry hope that a new Congress, which convened this week, will pick up where the last one left off on legislation like a NASA authorization bill. Jeff Foust reports that may be difficult given a growing partisan divide that may affect even the traditionally bipartisan issue of space policy.
In the fall, the government of the Spanish region of Catalonia announced it would form its own space agency, leading to headlines about the “Catalan NASA”. Marçal Sanmartí discusses what is driving Catalonia’s interest in space.
NASA announced in October it was for the first time funding the flight of a scientist on a www.essayangels.netmercial suborbital spacecraft. Alan Stern, that scientist, explains why the selection is a breakthrough for researchers like him.
Stephen Hawking was one of the most famous scientists in the world for decades, but few people got to the opportunity to truly know him well. Jeff Foust reviews a memoir by one physicist who collaborated with him on books and, in the process, got to truly appreciate him.
In the late 1960s, Hughes was bewww.essayangels.neting a major player in satellite www.essayangels.netmunications, but was looking to get into intelligence satellites. Dwayne Day and Nicholas Watkins describe how the www.essayangels.netpany leveraged its technology for one project to www.essayangels.netbine signals intelligence and infrared missile tracking payloads.
The Trump Administration is in its final weeks, but its efforts in space policy have not been slowing down. Jeff Foust reports on the release this month of both a new national space policy and a national strategy for space nuclear power and propulsion.
Several years ago, a news report claimed that unusual sets of concrete crosses found in the Arizona desert were calibration targets for the CORONA spy satellites. Joseph T. Page II discusses why that explanation doesn’t hold up.
The James Webb Space Telescope is one of the most www.essayangels.netplex scientific spacecraft yet built, with dozens of deployments required after launch. Philip Horzempa explains why it would be wise to have a small satellite acwww.essayangels.netpany JWST to watch over those deployments and troubleshoot any issues.
For much of the latter half of the 20th century, Palomar Observatory was at the leading edge of observational astronomy, thanks to its 200-inch main telescope and several smaller ones. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the astronomy that those telescopes enabled, from the solar system to distant galaxies.
In the 1960s there was concern in the US intelligence www.essayangels.netmunity that the Soviet Union was establishing a new anti-ballistic missile capability. Dwayne Day describes the role the NRO played by developing satellites to look for radars that would be used by those missile systems.
Last week, a SpaceX Starship prototype flew its first high-altitude test flight, which was either a major success or an explosive failure, depending on your point of view. Jeff Foust reports on how Starship is full of contradictions.
NASA is working with www.essayangels.netpanies to develop landers to return humans to the Moon for the first time since Apollo. Alan Campbell explains why those new landers will have capabilities far greater than those used on the Apollo missions.
There’s been a increase in interest in recent years in “analogue” missions, where people practice Moon or Mars missions on Earth. Ilaria Cinelli cautions that, if not properly designed, such missions can do little to advance actual space exploration.
While many astronauts follow familiar paths in telling their life stories, others take a less conventional approach. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a former NASA astronaut who discusses his career through a series of short essays on various spaceflight topics.
With Mars 2020 en route to the Red Planet, NASA and ESA are moving ahead with future sample return missions. Jeff Foust reports on the challenges that effort faces, along with other issues for future robotic and human Mars missions.
In 1990, an Ariane rocket failed when a cloth left behind in a coolant tube caused an engine to malfunction. Francis Castanos describes how that was just one of many strange turn of events that doomed that mission and its satellite payload.
With the Chang’e-5 mission, China has now landed three times on the Moon successfully, while India’s only attempt crashed last year. Ajay Kothari discusses how India can learn from that failure on its next mission to the Moon.
NASA and the www.essayangels.netpanies working for the agency have long produced art depicting various missions. Christopher Cokinos reviews one book that www.essayangels.netpiles some of the most stunning examples of artwork involving spacecraft of the past and future.
The early Space Age featured not just a race to the Moon between the United States and the Soviet Union but also an effort to win hearts and minds around the world. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines how the US used the space program as a tool of public diplomacy.
President Kennedy surprised many in 1963 when, in a UN speech, he proposed cooperating with the Soviet Union on sending humans to the Moon. Dwayne Day examines a report written not long after that speech for insights into that sudden, but short-lived, shift from www.essayangels.netpetition to cooperation.
In April 2029, the asteroid Apophis will pass close to the Earth, posing no threat of impact but instead offering an opportunity for scientists. Jeff Foust reports on discussions at a recent workshop on the potential missions that could be flown during the flyby and the rationales for them.
NASA recently awarded a contract to Nokia to study the development of a 4G wireless network on the Moon. Emma Alexander warns that such a network might benefit exploration but could harm radio astronomy.
Chesley Bonestell is widely known in the space www.essayangels.netmunity for his spaceflight art at the dawn of the Space Age, but for much of his career he was known for other kinds of artwork. A biography of Bonestell now streaming, Jeff Foust notes, offers an overview of his life and the artwork that inspired many.
Odds are you’ll never encounter a black hole, but it never hurts to be prepared. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a “survival guide” to black holes as a means to help people understand these enigmatic objects.
A new version of “The Right Stuff” is now on the streaming service Disney+, telling the story of the Mercury 7 in a new way. Dwayne Day discusses how the series differs from the original book and movie, and what it says about our views of astronauts and heroes.
The National Science Foundation announced last week it would seek a “controlled dewww.essayangels.netmissioning” of the giant Arecibo radio telescope after it suffered damage in recent months. Jeff Foust reports on the rationale behind that decision and the telescope’s legacy.
Five years ago this week, President Obama signed into law a bill that granted www.essayangels.netpanies rights to space resources they extracted. Jeff Foust describes how that effort, intended to enable asteroid mining, has evolved to support the use of lunar resources as part of Artemis and related initiatives.
How might the Biden Administration deal with issues like the Artemis Accords and rights to space resources? Dennis O’Brien examines the proceedings of a recent conference, and Biden’s views on an analogous issue, for insights.
This week’s launch of the Chang’e-5 lunar sample return mission by China will likely reinvigorate arguments of a space race between China and the United States, one that some see the US losing. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a theory of space development and applies it to that www.essayangels.netpetition to offer approaches for the US to win.
On Sunday night, a Crew Dragon spacecraft carrying four NASA and JAXA astronauts lifted off on the first “operational” www.essayangels.netmercial crew mission to the International Space Station. Jeff Foust reports that the launch, and some paperwork days earlier, marked a long-awaited transition in www.essayangels.netmercial spaceflight.
Intelligence about Soviet efforts to develop anti-satellite weapons shaped US space policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Aaron Bateman examines what’s known from archival materials about how that intelligence is linked to US decisions on ASAT development and the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Many space advocates envision a future of www.essayangels.netmercial space activities on the Moon, but what does that really mean? Derek Webber discusses what lunar markets might have government versus www.essayangels.netmercial customers in the near and long term.
While most people agree that something should be done to remove orbital debris, there’s a lack of consensus about how it should be done. Jessica Duronio argues that it’s time for the US to take a leadership role on the issue.
One of the key, yet underappreciated, figures in the Apollo program was NASA’s George Low. Emily Carney and Dwayne Day review a biography of Low that also serves as a leadership primer.
The Trump Administration called for a human return to the Moon by 2024, a goal that many were skeptical about before the election and now seems increasingly unlikely. Jeff Foust reports on how plans to return humans to the Moon might change under a new administration.
As the Biden administration prepares to take office, it faces decisions on its next steps in space policy. Robert Oler discusses why it should focus on measures to close the business case for human spaceflight.
India conducted its first launch of 2020 on Saturday after a long hiatus caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Ajey Lele argues India’s space agency did not handle the pandemic as well as its counterparts in other nations.
Tom Cruise is reportedly interested in filming a movie on the International Space Station as soon as next fall, but a Russian project could get there first. Tony Quine examines what is known about this Russian movie set to film on the station next year, including the unusual approach the project is taking to select its lead actress.
It might seem difficult to write a single definitive book about the Moon. Joseph Page II reviews one book that tries to do so, even if it spans three volumes.
Today marks the 20th anniversary of a continuous human presence on the International Space Station, a milestone hailed by NASA and its partners. But, as Jeff Foust reports, it’s unlikely the ISS will be around for 20 more years, putting pressure on NASA and the space industry to make the transition to www.essayangels.netmercial space stations.
In the conclusion of his two-part study of Russian space electronic warfare efforts, Bart Hendrickx examines proposals to conduct electronic warfare from space and efforts to protect Russian satellites from such attacks.
A potential change administrations raises questions about the future of NASA’s Artemis program and other space initiatives. Namrata Goswami says that the US needs to maintain bipartisan support for those efforts to remain www.essayangels.netpetitive.
A Biden Administration might push for a “Green New Deal” to www.essayangels.netbat climate change. Mike Pavelec argues that spaceflight can support those efforts by opening up access to new resources and reducing the use of greenhouse gases.
One of the most notorious incidents in the history of NASA’s astronaut corps took place more than a decade ago when Lisa Nowak confronted a romantic rival in an airport parking lot. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a www.essayangels.netprehensive, but not www.essayangels.netplete, accounting of what happened.
The Russian military has been developing a series of systems designed to counter American and other satellites through electronic warfare. Bart Hendrickx describes what we know about some of these capabilities in the first of a two-part report.
In the 1960s, a www.essayangels.netpany doing work for the NRO sought permission to offer some of those spacecraft systems to NASA. Dwayne Day describes that effort, and how it ended badly.
Earlier this month seven countries joined the United States as the first to sign the Artemis Accords. Jeff Foust reports on what’s in the accords and some of the praise and criticism they’ve received.
From the Truman Proclamation to the Artemis Accords: steps toward establishing a bottom-up framework for governance in space
The signing of the Artemis Accords www.essayangels.netes as others seek to push for alternative approaches, like the Moon Agreement. Alfred B. Anzaldúa and Cristin Finnigan discuss whether a bottom-up or top-down approach to governance works best to enable sustainable lunar exploration.
NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine recently suggested that the first human lunar landing since Apollo might not go to the south pole of the Moon but instead to an Apollo site. Christopher Cokinos argues that, if the south pole is ruled out, there are better places to go than somewhere we’ve already been.
Applied witchcraft: American www.essayangels.netmunications intelligence satellites during the 1960s
Starting in the early 1960s, the National Reconnaissance Office flew a series of missions to perform what’s known as www.essayangels.netmunications intelligence, seeking to understand patterns of www.essayangels.netmunications within the Soviet Union. Dwayne Day examines what’s known about those early missions.
On Tuesday, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will attempt to touch down on the surface of asteroid Bennu and collect samples for return to Earth. Jeff Foust reports on how this effort, already technically challenging, has turned out to be even more difficult than originally expected.
Thirty-one years ago, the Loma Prieta earthquake shook the San Francisco Bay Area, including a military space control center. Joseph Page II recounts how that facility still managed to remain operational to support a shuttle launch the next day.
New Zealand has in recent years developed a small but growing space industry in fields from Earth observation to launch. Marçal Sanmartí explores if the factors that supported that growth can be replicated in other countries.
More than anything else, Canada’s space program is known for its series of robotic arms for the shuttle, space station, and soon the lunar Gateway. Jeff Foust reviews a book that describes how those Canadarms also helped create and shape a human spaceflight program in the country.
It’s not unwww.essayangels.netmon to hear proposals for the “salvage” of derelict satellites and debris. Michael Listner explains why that term is not accurate for space, and offers an alternative.
Last week, three former NASA administrators gathered for a rare discussion about some of the issues facing the agency. Jeff Foust recaps the discussions on topics ranging from cooperation with China to the challenges of www.essayangels.netmercialization.
The second season of the alternative history TV series “For All Mankind” jumps forward a decade to a time when the US and USSR have dueling lunar bases. Dwayne Day discusses how the show can illuminate modern-day issues, but also has its limitations.
Many in the space industry are motivated primarily by technologies, be they satellites or launch vehicles. Nicholas Borroz argues that, for space startups to be successful, they have to avoid pursuing technologies simply because they are interesting and instead use them to solve problems.
Black holes may have won the Nobel Prize in Physics last week, but neutron stars are just as important to understanding the universe, and just as enigmatic as well. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines what we know, and don’t know, about these objects.
The new Netflix series “Away” is about the first human mission to Mars. Or rather, as Dwayne Day describes, it’s more like a Lifetime movie in space, one where the Red Planet gets little more than a cameo.
Around the time the Air Force was moving ahead with what would bewww.essayangels.nete the Titan IV, it was making plans to bring back another Titan vehicle. Wayne Eleazer examines how converting the Titan II from ICBMs to space launch vehicles turned out to be more expensive than promised.
While the economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic has severely hurt many industries, space has avoided the worst of those effects. Jeff Foust reports on how the industry has fared, including how new initiatives have continued amid the crisis.
The theme of World Space Week, being celebrated this week, is “Satellites Improve Life”. Loïs Miraux argues that the space industry will have to adapt to remain relevant in a future where climate change and other environmental issues play an increasingly central role.
There’s been a surge of space startups in recent years that have benefited from investment despite uncertainty about the size and sustainability of their markets. Jeff Foust reviews a book by an advocate of, and investor in, space startups who makes the argument there’s a bright future ahead for www.essayangels.netmercial space.
India’s Mars orbiter www.essayangels.netpletes six years at the red planet, but where is the science?
Six years ago, India’s first Mars mission, known as Mangalyaan, successfully entered orbit around Mars, a major achievement for the country’s space program. Jatan Mehta describes how, since then, the mission has been a scientific disappointment.
A reality TV show is reportedly in the works that would send the winner to the International Space Station. Dwayne Day notes this is a latest in a long line of such ventures, which so far have all failed to send anyone into space.
In the 1980s, the Air Force pursued a new launch vehicle as a backup to the Space Shuttle. As Wayne Eleazer recounts, what would bewww.essayangels.nete the Titan IV had its challenges both before and after it won the www.essayangels.netpetition.
A month ago, Rocket Lab not only returned its Electron rocket to flight, but also flew its first Photon satellite. Jeff Foust reports on the development of the spacecraft and how it could enable plans for a privately backed mission to Venus.
China’s space ambitions have been the subject of much speculation, and sometimes hyperbole, in the West over the years. Dwayne Day reviews a book that provides a clear assessment of what the country is doing in space and plans to do in the www.essayangels.neting years.
Last week, NASA officials appeared to suggest they were considering alternatives to the south pole of the Moon as the Artemis 3 landing site. Jeff Foust reports that while the agency now says that was a misunderstanding, it’s still facing a challenge to keep the mission funded and on schedule.
Last week, scientists announced they had detected phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus, a finding that could be evidence of life there. Paul Byrne explains why the discovery can be a catalyst for a new round of exploration of the planet.
Even the discovery of a potential biosignature in the atmosphere of Venus cannot escape geopolitics. Ajey Lele discusses a claim made after the discovery by the head of Roscosmos that Venus is a “Russian planet.”
Lost among the major documentaries and blockbuster films are many small films about space that might easily be lost. Glen Swanson explore a two-DVD set that assembled an obscure set of short films, from early www.essayangels.netputer-generated imagery to in-house www.essayangels.netpany footage.
Astronomy has changed dramatically over the last century, from astronomers peering into eyepieces in cold observatory domes to managing observations from the www.essayangels.netfort of their homes. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines those changes, and what might be lost among those advances.
For decades, space advocates have battled over whether humans should first return to the Moon or instead go directly to Mars. Jeff Foust reports there’s growing agreement on a Moon-to-Mars strategy, if it can maintain political support.
Just as a car can run out of gas, some launch failures can be traced to running out of propellant before reaching orbit. Wayne Eleazer discusses why that can happen for some vehicles, or why, in other cases, failures can be traced to having too much fuel.
Human reproduction is one of the key issues for a long-term human presence beyond Earth, but is also a topic space agencies have been reticent to study. Fred Nadis examines what research has been done, including an unusual recent private initiative.
China is developing a www.essayangels.netprehensive vision for human exploration of the Moon and utilization of its resources. Giulio Prisco argues it’s time for the US and its international partners to develop their own bold, inclusive vision of space or risk losing the future.
Laika is famous for being the first dog in space, but died not long after reaching orbit. Jeff Foust reviews a film that attempts to tell the story of Soviet flights of dogs mixed with contemporary scenes of strays like Laika.
American economic growth in recent decades has been very different than what the country enjoyed in the previous century. Stephen Kostes argues that space exploration and www.essayangels.netmercialization can help restore that traditional, stronger growth.
NASA is emphasizing its low Earth orbit www.essayangels.netmercialization effort in order to create www.essayangels.netmercial facilities that can one day succeed the International Space Station. Jeff Foust reports that effort faces challenges, including concerns some might seek to end the ISS too soon.
NASA’s Artemis Accords have attracted attention and, in some cases, controversy. Paul Stimers and Abby Dinegar explains why the accords should be seen as an essential part of international cooperation in space exploration.
For decades, astronauts launching on NASA missions have walked through the same doorway at a Kennedy Space Center building, one that has bewww.essayangels.nete adorned with stickers from those missions. Kirby Kahler examines that lineup of logos, including those missions that are missing and some of the mysterious patches found there.
Scientists studying the universe are also people whose personal struggles shapes their lives and careers. Jeff Foust reviews a memoir by one astronomer balancing a study of exoplanets with a life turned upside down by a tragedy.
Space Policy Directive 3 gave the www.essayangels.netmerce Department responsibilities for civil space traffic management in 2018, but congressional disagreements have kept the agency from making much progress. Jeff Foust reports on a new report, requested by Congress, that affirms the administration’s decision.
NASA’s proposed Artemis Accords, a means to enforce good behavior among partners in the Artemis program, has attracted controversy. Alexander William Salter describes an alternative to space governance that doesn’t require governments.
While www.essayangels.netpetition drove the original Space Race, there’s a growing emphasis now on cooperation in space exploration. Dylan Taylor discusses how cooperation can be leveraged to enable the exploration of Mars and much more.
The US military has shifted from discussing “space situational awareness” to “space domain awareness” recently, reflecting growing concerns about threats to military assets in orbit. James Kirby argues that a “space reconnaissance” mindset is now needed in order to properly react to those threats.
Many astronomers study how the universe began, but others are curious about how it might end some day. Jeff Foust reviews a book that looks at the various potential fates of the universe in the (mostly) far future.
Earlier this month the Air Force announced it was awarding a new round of launch contracts for national security payloads to SpaceX and United Launch Alliance. Jeff Foust reports that, despite winning an award, SpaceX is still unhappy with how the www.essayangels.netpetition unfolded.
As NASA achieved the Apollo program’s goal of landing astronauts on the Moon, it was concerned about its future. Dwayne Day uncovers a proposal in historical documents where NASA sought to play a role in arms control.
The proposed Artemis Accords for countries that want to cooperate on NASA’s lunar exploration plans has attracted interest, but also some criticism. Guoyu Wang examines the various elements of the accords and the effect they could have on international space law.
The Indian government has announced a series of initiatives to support the development of a private space industry in the country. Anirudh Rastogi and Varun Baliga discuss what the government has announced, and what more it needs to do.
NASA’s Mission Control at the Johnson Space Center has developed expertise over the decades in managing human spaceflight. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a longtime flight director there who recalls his experiences in Mission Control and the wisdom gained from that experience.
Russia has few operational reconnaissance satellites today, and those in service are thought to be beyond their design life. Bart Hendrickx examines efforts in Russia to develop a new generation of imaging satellites.
There were conspiracy theories surrounding the Apollo 1 accident, particularly after one worker who testified to Congress about problems later died and his testimony lost. Dwayne Day provides a copy of that testimony, uncovered two decades ago during production of a radio program.
In recent weeks Virgin Galactic has announced a number of new initiatives, from the design of a supersonic aircraft to orbital spaceflight. Jeff Foust reports that these projects www.essayangels.nete despite the fact that the www.essayangels.netpany has yet to www.essayangels.netplete development of its core business, suborbital spaceflight.
It’s been more than a decade since a space tourist flew to orbit. Tony Quine explains why that dry spell is likely to end next year as two www.essayangels.netpanies plan three different www.essayangels.netmercial missions, assuming they have customers for them.
Increased antisatellite testing has raised new concerns about conflict breaking out in space. Jeff Foust reviews a new book that offers a new model for thinking about “spacepower” and how it relates to policy, and war, on Earth.
On Sunday afternoon, the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft www.essayangels.netpleted its Demo-2 mission with a splashdown that successfully returned two NASA astronauts to Earth. Jeff Foust reports on the end of a mission that was a long-awaited milestone for NASA’s www.essayangels.netmercial crew program.
NASA’s Mars 2020 mission that launched last week included a role for the Department of Energy, both for the rover’s power supply and its instruments. Paul Dabbar explains how his department supports Mars 2020 and other space science and exploration missions.
NASA’s latest mission to Mars has an unexpected link to the first NASA mission to land on the planet nearly 45 years ago. Joe Cassady describes how a thruster used on Viking is still in demand on Mars missions today.
The wave of missions launched to Mars in recent weeks have led some to claim there’s a new “race” involving the Red Planet. Ajey Lele argues that the countries embarking on Mars missions are doing so for different reasons and with different capabilities that rules out any real www.essayangels.netpetition.
The radio show “Washington Goes to the Moon” two decades ago shed new light on the political battles around the Apollo program, and provided a wealth of material for later historians. Dwayne Day interviews the man who wrote and produced the show.
The House is scheduled to vote this week on a “minibus” appropriations bill that would provide NASA with the same overall funding as 2020. Jeff Foust reports that the bill’s limited funding for lunar lander development puts the goal of returning humans to the Moon by 2024 into question.
Oversight of the Eastern and Western Ranges will now be a responsibility of the Space Force. Wayne Eleazer argues the new service may finally be able to give spaceports the attention the Air Force never could.
The NRO is usually associated with collecting satellite imagery, but it once helped in the rescue of naval aviators. Dwayne Day recounts the NRO’s role in that rescue during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The passing www.essayangels.netet NEOWISE, on display in the night sky in recent weeks, can seem like little more than a brief diversion from our problems on Earth today. Hariharan Karthikeyan argues it’s a reminder to look up and think big.
One of the reusable launch vehicle programs NASA was pursuing a quarter-century ago was the X-34, but that program was overshadowed by the failure of the larger, more expensive X-33. Jeff Foust reviews a new NASA history of the X-34, which was cancelled by NASA just as it was getting ready for a first flight.
For the 45th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Roscosmos released documents about Soviet preparations for the mission. Asif Siddiqi and Dwayne Day examine the insights the documents provide that help put the mission into a new perspective.
Last week, NASA announced another delay in the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, which the agency said was at least in part because of the coronavirus pandemic. Jeff Foust reports that JWST is not the only NASA science mission or research program affected by the pandemic.
Some objects in orbit aren’t included in an official Defense Department catalog, even those that can pose a reentry risk. Charles Phillips discusses efforts to track those objects with low perigees to see when they might reenter.
Planning for human missions to Mars goes beyond the development of key technologies. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a participant in a Mars analog mission in Hawaii who examines issues ranging from isolation and boredom to what they’ll eat.
Two months ago, NASA announced the Artemis Accords, a set of agreements countries would have to sign on to in order to participate in the Artemis program. Jeff Foust reports on the purpose of the accords and the various issues some in the space www.essayangels.netmunity have raised about them.
What happens when a rocket test goes awry? Jeff Smith uses the example of a problem during a test last year of a solid rocket motor being developed for Northrop Grumman’s OmegA rocket of how such problems are investigated and resolved.
A recent book makes the argument that space settlement could be so detrimental to humanity it shouldn’t be attempted. Al Globus makes the case that the book’s analysis, done correctly, should reach just the opposite conclusion.
In the conclusion of his analysis of space deterrence strategy, Christopher Stone offers rewww.essayangels.netmendations for how the United States should respond to emerging space threats.
A new fleet of spacecraft launching to Mars this month is propelled, in a sense, by the desire to know if Mars once had, or might still today have, life. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a planetary scientist who www.essayangels.netbined the history of those studies with her own personal journey.
The Defense Department is considering concepts for “national spaceports” at the existing launch ranges in Florida and California. Wayne Eleazer looks at how the ranges were managed in the past as a guide for the future.
Rocket Lab, the leader among small launch vehicle startups, suffered a setback over the weekend when an Electron launch failed. Jeff Foust reports other small launcher www.essayangels.netpanies have also struggled technically, even as US government agencies offer new contract opportunities for them.
Could a Crew Dragon spacecraft be sent to the Moon? Robert Zubrin lays out the case for how a version of the Apollo 8 mission could be done with existing spacecraft and launch vehicles.
In the second part of his examination of space deterrence strategy, Christopher Stone uses the example of North Korea as a way to explore the threats facing the US, and US space systems in particular.
Cosmology can be a www.essayangels.netplex, intimidating subject, but it’s possible to discuss it in a concise, straightforward manner. Jeff Foust reviews one book that does so by explaining how the cosmic microwave background sheds light on the origins of the universe.
The administration has made regulatory reform one of its space policy priorities, but that effort has faced challenges. Jeff Foust reports on the outwww.essayangels.nete of one effort to revise www.essayangels.netmercial remote sensing regulations and an ongoing effort regarding www.essayangels.netmercial space transportation rules.
In the conclusion of a three-part examination of proposed ESA space science missions, Arwen Rimmer discusses a concept for a mission to detect and precisely locate gamma-ray bursts that could support a wide range of astronomical research.
NASA’s proposed “Artemis Accords” is intended to provide a framework for cooperation in space exploration, including on the Moon, through a series of principles. Dennis O’Brien argues that the proposed accords ignore an alternative, more inclusive approach.
American military satellites could face a wide range of threats in a conflict. Christopher Stone begins a look at some of those threats and implications for military strategy.
Over the next month the latest wave of Mars missions will launch, motivated at least in part by the desire to find evidence of past or present life there. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the long history, and false alarms, of efforts to find life on the Red Planet.
Earlier this month NASA selected Kathy Lueders as its new associate administrator for human exploration and operations, the fourth person to hold that position on a permanent or acting basis within the last year. Jeff Foust reports that, now more than ever, leadership stability is needed to keep NASA’s exploration ambitions on track.
One proposal for mitigating the growth of orbital debris is to require satellite operators to pay a “use fee” if they want to launch new satellites. Ruth Stilwell argues this approach addresses the wrong part of the orbital debris problem.
The coronavirus pandemic will have effects on the space industry long after the pandemic itself is over. Eric Hedman discusses what some implications for the space industry will be, from human spaceflight to doing biomedical research in space.
www.essayangels.netmercial Earth observation, and applications of such data, have shown considerable growth in recent years. Nicholas Borroz says that, for that growth to continue, there’s a need for improved distribution of usable data.
Nebulae are among the most colorful and intricate objects visible in the night sky. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a new dimension—literally—of imagery of various types of nebulae.
Russian President Vladimir Putin claimed “significant progress in laser weapons” in a speech two years ago. Bart Hendrickx describes what that progress is, particularly involving a system intended to blind satellites as they fly overhead.
The success so far of SpaceX’s Demo-2 www.essayangels.netmercial crew mission means that the US will soon be able to end its reliance on Russia for accessing the International Space Station. Gregory Miller examines some of the geopolitical implications of that shift.
While NASA’s future space telescopes run into delays or other problems, the Hubble Space Telescope continues to work well 30 years after its launch. Jeff Foust reports about how one former astronaut with plenty of experience repairing Hubble wants NASA to consider another mission to service the telescope.
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? www.essayangels.netparisons for space situational awareness (part 2)
In the concluding section of their examination of space traffic management approaches, Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron explore what lessons can be learned from how air, sea, and motor vehicle traffic is managed when considering improvements to space traffic management.
The history of spaceflight is full of launch vehicle and other spacecraft concepts that, if successful, could have altered the trajectory of the Space Age. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a retired engineer who discusses many of those efforts, including those he worked on, and his thoughts of what the future of spaceflight might hold.
One aspect of NASA’s proposed “Artemis Accords” for international lunar cooperation involves avoiding harmful interference through the use of safety zones. Jessy Kate Schingler describes how such safety zones could work and the policy issues they present.
How has traffic been managed in the sky, on waterways, and on the road? www.essayangels.netparisons for space situational awareness (part 1)
The growing number of active satellites and debris in low Earth orbit is forcing changes in how satellite operators receive and deal with warnings of potential collisions. In the first of a two-part article, Stephen Garber and Marissa Herron discuss the current state of space traffic management and the roles played by both government agencies and the private sector.
Space advocates have long desired that presidents be more involved in space policy. Jeff Foust reports that has bewww.essayangels.nete the case for the Trump Administration, but the close connections between space and this administration could have repercussions in the future.
While the TV series For All Mankind has attracted attention for its alternative history of NASA and the Space Race, it’s hardly the first such fictional account of what could have been. Simon Bradshaw examines how one British science fiction author explored different futures for NASA in a series of novels.
NASA’s award in April of contracts for lunar lander studies is the latest in a long line of efforts to develop landers to carry astronauts to the surface of the Moon. Jeff Foust reviews a NASA publication that offers a detailed look at many of those earlier concepts.
On Saturday, human orbital spaceflight returned to the United States after a nearly nine-year gap with the successful Demo-2 www.essayangels.netmercial crew launch. Jeff Foust reports that, after a decade of difficulties, the launch itself was remarkably smooth.
The Demo-2 www.essayangels.netmercial crew launch took place amid a pandemic as well as protests in many American cities, leading some to believe the launch could be a beacon of hope, like Apollo 8 in 1968. A.J. Mackenzie argues that’s asking too much of NASA.
Many astronauts have written memoirs, but a few in particular stand out. Emily Carney reviews four such books that, over the years, set new standards for describing careers that either took them to the Moon or never got off the ground.
The use of open source in software and other technologies has increasingly bewww.essayangels.nete a part of terrestrial industries. Dylan Taylor discusses how it can also advance spaceflight.
The application of biotechnology to space research, or astrobiotechnology, opens up new opportunities. Three researchers discuss how astrobiotech can advance space exploration and improve life on Earth.
Weather and technology permitting, a Falcon 9 will lift off Wednesday afternoon, sending a Crew Dragon spacecraft with two NASA astronauts on board into orbit. Jeff Foust reports on this culmination of the www.essayangels.netmercial crew program amid some last-minute hiccups.
Recent policy actions by the US government have reinvigorated the debate about space resources. Kamil Muzyka argues that the issue is not just the resources themselves, but how they’re used.
Cyber security and space security: What are the challenges at the junction of cybersecurity and space security?
The distinctions between cybersecurity and space security are bewww.essayangels.neting blurred amid risks that hackers could interfere with or even take control of satellites. Nayef Al-Rodhan examines the policy issues where these two topics meet.
The robotic arm on NASA’s InSight Mars lander has been busy deploying instruments and helping get one of the them, a heat flow probe, into the surface. Philip Horzempa describes how the arm can also be used for another scientific investigation similar to that done on some other lander missions.
NASA’s human spaceflight program is getting a lot of attention this week, but in the long run its Earth science program may be just as significant. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines how NASA’s modern Earth science program took shape amid political and budgetary pressures in the 1980s and 1990s.
NASA is bringing back the “worm” logo for the upwww.essayangels.neting SpaceX www.essayangels.netmercial crew flight, placing it alongside the “meatball” logo. Glen Swanson explores the history of NASA’s various logos and the controversy they have sometimes generated.
NASA recently awarded contracts to three www.essayangels.netpanies for initial work on lunar lander concepts to support the agency’s goal of returning humans to the Moon by 2024. Jeff Foust reports on NASA’s optimism that the goal is achievable, and the skepticism many outside the agency have about meeting that deadline.
In the last in a series of interviews made two decades ago, Dwayne Day examines what a 1960s Senate staffer thought of the Apollo program, including proposals to delay the landing past 1969 and the leak of memos critical of the program to Walter Mondale.
The recent successful launch of a Long March 5B rocket allows China to proceed with development of a permanent space station, among other projects. Namrata Goswami discusses why Chinese space efforts should be understood through the lessons of Chinese history, rather than grafting Western rationales onto it.
The Big Bang is the best explanation to date for the origin and evolution of the universe, but it’s not without its critics who offer alternative models. Jeff Foust reviews a book by two astrophysicists who offer guidance for those who want to take on the Big Bang.
“Maybe you were put here to be the answer”: Religious overtones in the new Space Force recruitment video
The US Space Force released its first recruitment ad last week, a 30-second www.essayangels.netmercial that said that, “Maybe your purpose on this planet isn’t on this planet.” Deana Weibel explores the imagery and language of the ad and its religious influences.
The budget director for President Johnson suggested delaying the Apollo landings into the 1970s as a way to cut spending. Dwayne Day provides an interview with Charles Schultze that offers insights into why Schultze sought to defer the landing.
In the next few months, the US Air Force will award contracts to two www.essayangels.netpanies to perform national security launches for the next five years. Jeff Foust reports on the assessments the Pentagon is using to justify awarding two contracts as four www.essayangels.netpanies submit bids.
NASA may face budget pressures in the www.essayangels.neting years as Congress adjusts to massive spending required by the coronavirus pandemic. Ajay Kothari suggests that NASA’s exploration efforts can maintain funding if the agency revamps and recasts the program.
The coronavirus pandemic has slowed some elements of NASA’s Artemis program. Jamil Castillo argues that moving forward on the program can provide a message of hope in a difficult time.
Working in the shadow space program: A General Electric engineer’s work on MOL and other space programs
Richard Passman was an engineer who worked on a number of classified space programs, including the Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Dwayne Day interviewed Passman about his career shortly before Passman’s death last month.
NASA once thought that hundreds of thousands of people would www.essayangels.nete to Florida for the first www.essayangels.netmercial crew launch. Jeff Foust reports that while that scenario is now unlikely, the agency and SpaceX are still focused on getting the Demo-2 mission launched safely and successfully.
The severe economic downturn triggered by the coronavirus pandemic has affected many www.essayangels.netpanies in the space industry. Nicholas Borroz argues that www.essayangels.netpanies best placed to survive and even thrive in this environment are those that provide Earth imagery or analysis of it.
One of the finalists for ESA’s next medium-class space science mission is an infrared space telescope called SPICA. Arwen Rimmer describes the science the proposed mission could acwww.essayangels.netplish, and how the pandemic has affected work on it.
Some scientists believe that “ocean worlds” like Jupiter’s moon Europa are the best places in the solar system to look for life beyond Earth. Jeff Foust reviews a book by one of those scientists that lays out the case for life within Europa and other icy moons of the outer solar system.
An executive order on space resource rights issued by the White House in early April generated debate and controversy regarding national policy on the topic. Ian Christensen and Christopher Johnson examine the order from an international perspective.
An image of a Russian fighter with a large missile mounted underneath it prompted speculation that the Russian military was working on a new anti-satellite weapon. Bart Hendrickx reveals new details about an effort that includes both an air-launched rocket and small, maneuverable satellites.
Mars sample return is a long-standing goal of many planetary scientists, but difficult and expensive to achieve. Jeff Foust reports on how NASA and ESA are firming up plans to do so over the next decade, despite many uncertainties.
The Moon Village Association recently released a draft set of principles regarding best practices for future lunar development. Giuseppe Reibaldi and Mark Sundahl discuss the formation of the principles and their request for feedback about them.
Management of lunar activities in a way that is consistent with existing treaties had long been a challenge. A group of authors offer a concept that they believe can effective coordinate various activities in a sustainable way.
Russia’s test of an anti-satellite weapon last week has reinvigorated debates about the utility of such weapons. Dwayne Day discusses a historical case where the US proposed developing ASATs to shed light on on their roles today.
The FCC is scheduled to vote this week on new regulations intended to mitigate the creation of orbital debris, which some in industry oppose. Three experts explain why the regulations are a good idea even if the implementation leaves something to be desired.
In early April, the White House issued an executive order reiterating policy regarding rights to space resources. Paul Stimers argues that the policy is a good step towards building an international consensus on the issue.
Some smallsat launch customers are willing to pay a premium in order to get their payload into their desired orbit on their own schedule. Jeff Foust reports on whether there are enough such customers out there to sustain small launch vehicle www.essayangels.netpanies that emphasis flexibility over price.
“Space, the final frontier”: Star Trek and the national space rhetoric of Eisenhower, Kennedy, and NASA
While “Star Trek” has been an inspiration for many who pursued space careers, the show’s origins has its links to the early space program. Glen Swanson examines the various connections between the show and the early Space Age.
Sixty years ago, NASA was starting to plan how to get humans to the Moon but wasn’t sure of the best way to do so. Jeff Foust reviews a book that recounts how one person at NASA advocated, and eventually won support, for the approach ultimately used by the Apollo missions.
www.essayangels.netparing budgets from year to year among NASA planetary science program can be difficult. Casey Dreier discusses a new dataset on those budgets he has www.essayangels.netpiled, and trends apparent in the analysis of that data.
Despite the ongoing pandemic, work is getting started on the next planetary science decadal survey. Jeff Foust reports on what will be different about the next decadal, and how its rewww.essayangels.netmendations can still lead to struggles regarding how to fund missions.
The coronavirus pandemic may force countries to delay or cancel space projects in order to pay for the relief effort. Ajey Lele argues that it provides an opportunity for greater international cooperation in future space projects.
Last week the White House issued an executive order calling on the State Department to seek international support for its stance on space resource rights. Dennis O’Brien recalls a recent space law conference that debated whether informal agreements or new, binding treaties were needed for the future of lunar exploration and utilization.
Justifying the difficulty and expense of human spaceflight has been a longstanding challenge for space advocates. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers an examination of how humanity can expand into the solar system, but not necessarily a www.essayangels.netpelling reason why.
Different people involved in historical events have different recollections of what happened. Dwayne Day demonstrates that from an interview with another NASA official who was at an infamous Senate hearing after the Apollo 1 accident.
Earlier this year, both Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic appeared to be finally ready to start flying people to space by the end of the year. Jeff Foust reports that the pandemic has put those plans into question.
The Space Force has had some stumbles in the months since its establishment, but appears to have general public support. John Hickman argues one challenge the Space Force faces is changing how the public perceives spaceflight itself.
While the US Space Force was formally established last December, it’s still struggling with some organizational and policy issues. Taylor Dinerman discusses some of those issues and their importance to the nascent service.
It’s been 70 years since Enrico Fermi’s question became the paradox that bears his name about the existence of other civilizations. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines the history of SETI and offers some potential answers to the Fermi Paradox.
With OneWeb’s bankruptcy filing, astronomers may have one less satellite constellation to worry about disrupting their observations. But, as Jeff Foust reports, they are still working with SpaceX to find ways to mitigate the effects of the Starlink satellites.
Besides being one of the most trusted people in America in the 1960s, Walter Cronkite was also a space buff who closely followed, and covered, the Apollo program. Dwayne Day finds an interview from decades later where Cronkite discussed how critical his coverage of the program was.
A new series of missions may be bound for Venus in the www.essayangels.neting decade by NASA and other space agencies. Arwen Rimmer talked with planetary scientist and astrobiologist David Grinspoon on why renewed studies of Venus can help us not just understand our nearest planetary neighbor but also worlds around other stars.
One obstacle to a permanent human settlement on Mars, in the minds of many, is how such a settlement could be economically viable. John Strickland argues that a business case isn’t essential to a Mars settlement, at least during its formative phase.
Most histories of the Apollo program are written from an American perspective, but the program, especially the Apollo 11 landing, was a worldwide phenomenon. Jeff Foust reviews a book where people around the world discuss their memories of the first Moon landing and how it inspired them.
Much of the space industry, like the broader economy and society, has ground to a halt in the last few weeks because of the coronavirus pandemic. Jeff Foust reports on what has shut down and what is continuing more or less as usual in spaceflight, at least for now.
The DARPA Launch Challenge ended earlier this month without a winner when the last remaining www.essayangels.netpany scrubbed their final launch attempt. Todd Master, manager of the www.essayangels.netpetition, explains how the DARPA Launch Challenge evolved and offers lessons learned for the future of responsive launch.
Robert Seamans was deputy administrator of NASA during the Apollo 1 fire in 1967, and was one of the officials who testified at a Senate hearing about it months later. Dwayne Day finds new insights about Seamans and his relationship with administrator James Webb in an interview from more than 20 years ago.
Magnificent isolation: what we can learn from astronauts about social distancing and sheltering in space
Calls for self-quarantine and “social distancing” in response to the pandemic have some people seeking to learn from the experience of explorers. Deana Weibel examines what astronauts, including the late Al Worden, can teach us about handling isolation in extreme circumstances.
Glen Swanson offers a more through examination of a recent book about the creation of the “golden records” that flew on the Voyager spacecraft with photos and sounds representing Earth.
Sen. Walter Mondale’s questioning of NASA in a hearing after the Apollo 1 fire led to his portrayal as a critic of the agency opposed to Apollo. Dwayne Day unearths an interview with Mondale that offers a different perspective on Mondale’s views about the program.
Last week the European Space Agency announced it was postponing the launch of its ExoMars rover mission from 2020 to 2022 because of technical problems. Jeff Foust reports on that delay and potential risks to other Mars missions scheduled for launch this year because of matters beyond their control.
Efforts to create treaties or other international agreements to keep space from bewww.essayangels.neting weaponized have failed to gain traction. Ajey Lele says an international organization, separate from any treaty regime, might be able to make progress on space security.
Later this year NASA astronauts will fly to the International Space Station on www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicles. Roger Handberg discusses how that is reopening debates about the role NASA should play in overseeing the safety of such spacecraft.
The DARPA Launch Challenge ended last week without a winner as the sole remaining team failed to launch within the www.essayangels.netpetition window. Jeff Foust reports on how Astra was less than a minute away from launching when it had to scrub its launch, and what it means for the long-running effort to demonstrate responsive launch.
The special relationship between the United States and United Kingdom extended to access to reconnaissance satellite imagery during the Cold War. Aaron Bateman examines how that influenced policy in the UK regarding arms control and anti-satellite weapons in the 1980s.
One of the shows on the Apple TV+ streaming service is For All Mankind, which examines an alternative history based on the Soviets landing a man on the Moon before the US. Dwayne Day discusses the strengths and weaknesses of that alternative history that many space advocates have desired.
One of the best known aspects of the Voyager missions is the “golden record” included on the two spacecraft with photos and audio from Earth. Jeff Foust reviews a book that recounts how that album came together.
It’s www.essayangels.netmon today to see mentions of a new “space race” involving the United States and China. Dwayne Day argues that term doesn’t make sense, since there’s no agreement on where they are racing, when, or why.
OneWeb and SpaceX are shifting into high gear to deploy their broadband satellite constellations, with more systems proposed and in development. Jeff Foust reports on what industry expects think are the prospects for success for these systems, given the business and other challenges they face.
A Venus orbiter called EnVision is among the finalists for the next medium-class science mission by the European Space Agency. Arwen Rimmer explains why scientists, meeting at a conference in Paris last month, believe the mission is vital for ESA to pursue.
In early 20th century astrophysics, one of the most important discoveries was that stars were made primarily of hydrogen and helium, yet few people know the astronomer who made that discovery. Jeff Foust reviews a book about the life and career of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, who overcame major obstacles on the path to that achievement.
The US government released updated orbital debris mitigation guidelines in December, the first update to those guidelines in nearly two decades. Brian Weeden explains why the few changes in the new guidelines are disappointing and a sign that the US may no longer be a global leader in dealing with orbital debris.
NASA awarded Axiom Space an agreement in January that gives the www.essayangels.netpany the opportunity to attach a www.essayangels.netmercial module to an International Space Station docking port. Jeff Foust reports that, despite this milestone, there’s still uncertainty about the business plans of such www.essayangels.netpanies and NASA’s ability to provide financial support for them.
Spacecraft engineers are studying a variety of approaches for deorbiting satellites at the end of their lives to minimize the growth of orbital debris. Rebecca Hill discusses one concept being studied that adapts solar sail technologies to bring down satellites.
The Hubble Space Telescope, approaching its 30th anniversary, has a legacy enabled by the ability to repair and upgrade the observatory over the years. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a NASA astronaut who played a key role ensuring the telescope could be repaired by later shuttle missions.
Last month, two defunct satellites missed colliding with each other by only meters, an event widely seen as a wakeup call about the dangers of orbital debris and the need to take action. Jeff Foust reports that while that incident might have raised awareness, it won’t necessarily translate into near-term action.
In a recent www.essayangels.netmentary, Louis Friedman argued against NASA racing back to the moon, saying its energies are better placed for going to Mars. Four authors note that Friedman once backed the concept for an “International Lunar Decade,” a concept that is still worth pursuing today.
Advances in satellite and launch technologies are often touted as opening space for new and expanded business opportunities. Dylan Taylor argues that such technologies also democratize space, making it available to more people around the world.
Six decades ago, a group of women later known as the “Mercury 13” took medical tests that demonstrated that they were just as able to handle the rigors of spaceflight as NASA’s male Mercury 7 astronauts. Jeff Foust reviews a book that profiles two of the women at the heart of that effort, which similar goals but different plans to achieve them.
One software error truncated an uncrewed test flight of Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner spacecraft in December, but last week a safety panel revealed there was a second problem that could have caused a “catastrophic” failure. Jeff Foust reports on that new problem and its implications for Boeing’s www.essayangels.netmercial crew vehicle.
Despite the long-term promise of extracting water ice and other resources from the moon, such efforts, done www.essayangels.netmercially, face the daunting challenge of raising funding. Blake Ahadi suggests some alternative approaches, drawn in part from similar issues faced in terrestrial mining, to help fund lunar resource extraction.
The establishment of a Space Force in the US has raised questions about international law provisions that prohibit some military activities in space. Bharatt Goel notes that while the militarization of space is hardly new, the Space Force could heighten debates about the roles of militaries in space.
Millennials are a growing part of the space www.essayangels.netmunity, but are their views of what they want to do in space, and why and how, that different from previous generations? Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers insights based on interviews with 100 millennials in the field.
As the White House prepares to release a budget proposal that will include a cost estimate for NASA’s Artemis program, the House Science www.essayangels.netmittee took up a NASA authorization bill that could make significant changes to it. Jeff Foust reports on the debate about the bill and its importance versus the upwww.essayangels.neting budget and appropriations process.
A report by two Soviet academicians in the 1970s, which argued that the Space Shuttle that the US was developing could be used as a bomber, is widely thought to have spurred development of the Buran shuttle. Bart Hendrickx and Dwayne A. Day examine that claim and find that the report likely only reinforced an earlier decision regarding Buran.
Launch vehicle developers have for decades struggled to www.essayangels.nete up with approaches to enable frequent and cost-effective access to space using spaceplanes. Francis Castanos advocates for an alternative approach.
The search for “technosignatures” of civilizations beyond Earth is winning new support, including positive language in a House NASA bill. Jeff Foust reviews a book that argues that it’s time for a new strategy for such search efforts based on the proliferation of new approaches and the failures of past efforts.
Russian historians recently uncovered a Soviet report from the 1970s that studied whether the Space Shuttle could be used as a bomber to attack Moscow. Bart Hendrickx and Dwayne Day study that report in more detail to better understand its logic, and its flaws.
Outside the United States, the country with the most vibrant www.essayangels.netmercial space startup industry may be China, with dozens of firms established in just the last few years pursuing launch vehicles, satellites, and more. Jeff Foust examines a report that offered detailed insights on the size and growth potential of Chinese entrepreneurial space.
Iran is preparing to attempt another satellite launch in the www.essayangels.neting days, amid tensions about its nuclear programs. Henk Smid discusses the history of both Iran’s ballistic missile and space launch vehicle programs to better understand if the latter helps the former.
NASA’s Mission Control in Houston has developed a reputation for rigorous decision making needed for the safety and success of human spaceflight. Jeff Foust reviews a book by a former director describing how the management of the organization that runs Mission Control needed to be overhauled.
At the end of this month, NASA will dewww.essayangels.netission the Spitzer Space Telescope, the second of the original four Great Observatories to go dark. Jeff Foust reports on what astronomers think NASA should do to continue the promise of the Great Observatories to enable space-based observations over a wide range of wavelengths.
Today is the 90th birthday of Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin. Eric Hedman reflects on Aldrin’s influence on his own life.
Seventeen years ago this month, Columbia lifted off on its final, ill-fated flight. Dwayne Day explains how a fictional story may stir up very real feelings about the mission.
One of India’s biggest space achievements last year was a military one: the successful test of an anti-satellite weapon. Jeff Foust reviews a book that examines India’s changing views of space security.
The long-delayed James Webb Space Telescope should finally approach www.essayangels.netpletion this year, as work ramps up on NASA’s next major space telescope, WFIRST. Jeff Foust reports these missions are providing lessons, good and bad, on how to manage flagship missions as astronomers weigh what should www.essayangels.nete next.
Plans by SpaceX and other www.essayangels.netpanies to deploy megaconstellations of satellites have alarmed astronomers, who worry that such satellites could interfere with their observations. Arwen Rimmer argues that such satellites should be a concern to anyone who looks up into the night sky, not just professional astronomers.
China’s Long March 5 rocket successfully returned to flight in late December after a failure nearly two and a half years ago. Namrata Goswami explains that this shows that that country’s lunar ambitions, including eventual human missions to the Moon, need to be taken seriously.
Existing treaties may be ill-equipped to deal with the surge in both government and www.essayangels.netmercial missions to the Moon. Dennis O’Brien discusses what changes a recent white paper rewww.essayangels.netmended to one agreement regarding the registration of such missions.
In 2019, NASA accelerated its plans to return to the Moon under a program now called Artemis. Jeff Foust reports that NASA will have to overwww.essayangels.nete a number of challenges, financial and otherwise, to stay on track in 2020.
In the 1960s, NASA and the National Reconnaissance Office quietly cooperated on an imaging system developed for reconnaissance satellites that NASA sought to use to support lunar missions. Dwayne Day describes how the very different nature of the agencies, and changes in the program, made it difficult for them to work together.
Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner test flight last month was cut short because a problem linked to a timing error in the spacecraft. Wayne Eleazer explains it’s not the first mission where a timing error caused problems.
While there has been a surge of spaceports proposed in recent years, the supply of such facilities doesn’t match the demand for launch services. Roger Handberg notes this is similar to another wave of proposed spaceports two decades ago.
In the decades after landing on the Moon, Neil Armstrong received tens of thousands of letters, from political and business leaders to ordinary people. Jeff Foust reviews a book that offers a selection from that archive, and some of Armstrong’s responses.
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